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Introduction, 3 

Obsequies at Forest Lawn Cemetery — Address by 

Mr. W. C. Bryant, 11 

Commemorative Exercises at Music Hall — Opening 
Address by Hon. James Sheldon — Oration by Hon. 
George W. Clinton — Address by Gen. Ely S. Parker, 24 

List of Indian Delegates, 45 

"Red Jacket's Bones" (from the Buffalo Commercial. 
Advertiser of August 14, 1884) — Letter from ex- 
Gov. Seymour, 47 

Diagram of Indian Burial Lot at Forest Lawn, . . 50 

" Hodenosaunee " (Article % from Buffalo Daily Courier 

of October 9, 1884), 51 

"Sagoyewatha's Rest" (Articles from Buffalo Express 

of October 7 and 8, 1884), 53-56 

List of Subscribers, 57 

Officers of the Buffalo Historical Society, 1884, . . 59 

Action of the Grand Council of the Six Nations of 

Canada on the Return of their Delegation, . 60 

How the Great Chief's Remains were Lost and 

Recovered, 62 



Ruth Stevenson, the Favorite Step-child of Red 

Jacket — Death of the Great Orator, .... 64 

Red Jacket's Disappointed Ambition, 66 

Sagoyewatha — Etymology of the Word — Sachems, 
Assistant Councilors and Head Men of the 
Iroquois, 71 

Otetiani, its Etymology, etc., 77. 

Garangula, the Great Onondaga Orator, .... 79 

Sketches of the Five Indian Chiefs Re-intombed with 
Red Jacket : The Young King, Captain Pollard, 
Little Billy, Destroy Town, Tall Peter — The 
Nine Unknown Braves, 81 

The Mohawk Centennial at Tyendinaga — Bay of 

Quinte, 87 

The Mohawk Centennial Celebrated on the Grand 

River Reserve, Province of Ontario, 93 

Origin of the Names or Titles of the Fifty Original 

League Sachemships, 9S 

Anecdote of Red Jacket — Leaf from a Diary — Glimpse 

of Red Jacket's Family in 1794, ico 

An Interview with the Delawares — Their Origin — 

Derivation of the Word Manhattan, 102 

Poems Suggested by the Re-burial of the Old Chiefs 

at Forest Lawn, 104 

Personal Names among the Iroquois — Onas, or William 

Penn, 1 10 


THE project of re-interring the remains of Red Jacket, and 
of cotemporary chiefs, lying in neglected graves in the vicinage 
of Buffalo, has for a score of years been discussed and advo- 
cated by prominent members of the Buffalo Historical Society. 
In public addresses, on different occasions, Messrs. Lewis F. 
Allen, Orlando Allen, Orsamus H. Marshall, William P. Letch- 
worth and others have, in earnest and touching language, 
urged the measure as a fitting and pious duty toward the dis- 
tinguished chiefs and leaders of the hapless aborigines whom 
we have dispossessed. Correspondence was entered into with 
the late Nathaniel T. Strong (Honnondeuh), a principal chief 
of the Senecas, who warmly approved the measure, and who 
thought the surviving relatives of the dead sachems and 
warriors, as well as the council of the nation, would give it 
their sanction. 

The bones of Red Jacket, it was understood, were in the 
jealous custody of his step-daughter, Ruth Stevenson, an aged 
and pious Christian woman, who, after consulting the devoted 
missionaries, Rev. Asher Wright and his wife, signified her 
willingness to surrender them to the society for re-interment 
in Forest Lawn Cemetery. Many of the cotemporaries of 
this renowned chief were buried in the old mission cemetery, 
of which the venerable widow of Asher Wright, in a letter to 
the writer, speaks as follows : 

"About four miles from the City of Buffalo, on what was the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation, may be found the old Indian burial- 
ground. This little spot, consecrated as the last resting-place of 
many of the chiefs and head men of the Senecas, occupied the site 
of an ancient Indian fort. In 1842 the line of the intrenchments 
could be distinctly traced, especially on the west and south. A little 
to the north of the principal entrance was the grave of the celebrated 
chief, Red Jacket, so long the faithful friend and protector of his 
people against encroachments of the whites, and still, as we might 
imagine, the watchful sentinel, solemnly guarding this little spot, 
where so many of his chosen friends recline around him, from the 
desecrating touch of the race whom he had so much reason to fear 
and hate. 

" Nearly opposite the grave of Red Jacket, on the south of the 
entrance, was a solitary white stone. This marked the grave of 'The 
White Woman,' as she was popularly called, Mary Jemison. 1 
The stone was partly broken and the inscription defaced, for so 
strange was the story of the ancient sleeper that strangers visiting 
the place, and wishing to carry away mementoes of their visit, had 
dared to chip off considerable portions of the marble. 

"It is a little remarkable that so many of the characters who 
figured on the stage with her, and took part in the eventful scenes 
with which she was so familiar, should have been brought into such 
close proximity to her in the last scene in which they were con- 
cerned on earth. Here they lie, side by side ; the stern old warrior 
and his feeble victim might shake hands and exchange greetings. 

" No stones marked the graves of these "primitive nobles, but 
while the tribe still resided on the Buffalo Creek Reservation the 
graves of Red Jacket, Young King, Little Billy, Destroy Town, 
Twenty Canoes, Two Guns, Captain Pollard, John Snow, Old White- 
chief and others were pointed out to the curious traveler." 

On the evening of the twenty-ninth day of December, 1863, 
the late Chief Strong, by invitation of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, delivered at St. James Hall, in the City 
of Buffalo, a lecture, the theme of which was Red Jacket. He 
concluded with an eloquent appeal, addressed to his white 
brethren, to rescue the remains of Red Jacket and other 

1 See Seaver's Life of Mary Jemison. 




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Seneca Village, Western View. 

eminent chiefs from threatened profanation and bury them in 
Forest Lawn Cemetery. This interesting paper was never 
published, and it is to be regretted that the manuscript was 
lost or destroyed. The Buffalo Morning Express, however, on 
the following morning reported a few of the concluding sen- 
tences of the address, and which were substantially as follows : 

" * * * Thus perished the pride and glory of my people. His 
efforts to resist the advance of civilization among the Iroquois 
sprang from a mistaken patriotism. He knew not the irresistible 
power that impels its progress. The stalwart oak with its hundred 
arms could not hope to beat back the fierce tempest. He lived to 
see the power and glory of the confederate Iroquois culminate. He 
saw their friendship courted by the French and English monarchies, 
when those gigantic powers were grappling in a desperate struggle 
for supremacy in the new world. He lived to see his nation decline; 
its power, its influence, its numbers wasting away like spring snows 
on verdant hill-sides. 

" I stand before you now in the last hours of a death-stricken 
people. A few summers ago our council fires lighted up the arches 
of the primeval wood which shadowed the spot where your city now 
stands. Its glades rang with the shouts of our hunters and the 
gleeful laugh of our maidens. The surface of yonder bay and river 
was seamed only by the feathery wake of our bark canoes. The 
smoke of our cabins curled skyward from slope and valley. 

"To-night! to-night ! J address you as an alien in the land of my 
fathers. I have no nation, no country, and, I might say, I have no 
kindred. All that we loved, and prized, and cherished, is yours. 
The land of the rushing river, the thundering cataract and the 
jeweled lakes is yours. All these broad blooming fields, those 
wooded hills and laughing valleys are yours — yours alone. 

"I would I had the eloquence of Red Jacket that I might fitly 
speak of the wrongs and sorrows of my people. O, let your hearts 
be stirred with pity toward them, and when the spring violets blossom 
over my grave and that of the last of the Buffalo Senecas — as soon 
they will — let not our memory perish with us. ****** 

"There is one boon we would ask of you. Gather up tenderly 
the bones of Red Jacket, Cornplanter, Young King, Pollard and 
their brother chieftains and bury them in yonder cemetery, where 

the plow of the husbandman will not invade their repose. There, in 
sight of their own beautiful river, and under the shadow of the trees 
they loved so much, our sachems will sleep well. 
. u Within the limits of this city the great orator once said, ' But an 
evil day came upon us. Your forefathers crossed the great waters 
and landed on this island. Their numbers were small. They found 
friends — not enemies. They told us they had fled from their own 
country for fear of wicked men, and had come here to enjoy their 
religion. They asked for a s?nall seat. We took pity on them and 
granted their request, and they sat down amongst us. We gave them 
corn and meat.' 

" Brothers of the pale race : We crave now, in our turn, but 
1 a small seat ' in yonder domain of the dead ! " 

It is proper to state, in this connection, that the remains 
of Farmer's Brother, interred with military honors in the old 
village cemetery on Franklin square in 1812, were exhumed 
on the fifteenth day of October, 185 1, and reburied in Forest 
Lawn Cemetery. A noble granite obelisk, on which his name, 
with those of many gallant soldiers who fell in the second war 
for independence, are inscribed, marks the spot. 

Although Mr. Strong's appeal deeply affected his audience, 
moving many of them to tears, the project was allowed to 
slumber until September 22, 1876, when Mr. William C. 
Bryant, a member of the Board of Councilors of the B. H. 
Society, visited the Cattaraugus Reservation and laid the 
matter before the Council of the Seneca Nation, which was 
then convened there. Chief John Jacket, a grandson of the 
great orator — pipe in mouth, as became a grave Indian coun- 
cilor — presided over the assemblage. After a full discussion 
of the subject, the assembled chiefs, by vote, gave the project 
their unqualified approval. 

The Buffalo City Cemetery (Forest Lawn), it should be 
gratefully recorded, had, in a broad spirit of liberality some 

years before, adopted a resolution to place at the disposition 
of the Historical Society a spacious lot in their beautiful 
grounds for the burial of the dead sachems and warriors. 

On the second day of October, 1879, Messrs. O. H. Marshall 
and William C. Bryant, officers of the society, visited the 
reservation and obtained from their aged custodian the remains 
of Red Jacket, which thereafter and until their final sepulture 
in Forest Lawn, October 9, 1884, were deposited, inclosed in 
a plain pine box, in the vaults of the Western Savings Bank 
of Buffalo. 

At a regular meeting of the Board of Managers of the 
Historical Society, held at its rooms on the twenty-seventh 
day of March, 1884, a committee of fifteen members was 
appointed to make arrangements for the re-interment and 
ceremonies connected therewith, as well as locating the burial 
lot and collecting funds for the monument, head-stones, etc. 
This General Committee, pursuant to call of its president, 
William Dana Fobes, Esq., met on the following evening, 
and from its membership the following sub-committees were 
appointed : 

Finance. — Gen. John C. Graves, William H. H. Newman, Hon. 
Philip Becker, Alonzo Richmond and William K. Allen. 

Decorations. — Thomas B. French, George W. Townsend, General 

Printing. — Townsend, Dr. Leon F. Harvey, Hon. James Sheldon. 

Program. — Sheldon, W. C. Bryant, Hon. Lewis F. Allen, Becker 
and Graves. 

Invitations and Correspondence. — Chas. B. Germain, Bryant, Sheldon. 

Selection of Indian Chiefs for Interment, their History, etc. — Bryant, 
French and Sheldon. 

Cemetery Grounds, etc. — Newman, John M. Hutchinson, Wm. K. 

Monument. — Hon. £lias S. Hawley, Richmond, Germain. 

Music. — Harvey, Hawley, Wm. K. Allen. 



At this meeting the ninth day of October following was 
fixed as the date of the obsequies. It was resolved that dele- 
gates representing the whole of the ancient league of the Six 
Nations or Iroquois, resident in the State of New York, Canada 
and elsewhere, be invited to attend and participate in the cere- 
monies ; which was afterwards done and favorable responses 
were received from Lt.-Col. Gilkison, Visiting Superintendent 
of the Six Nations in Canada, as well as from the chiefs at 
the Cattaraugus and Tuscarora Reservations. The order of 
exercises at the graves and at a commemorative meeting to 
be held in Music Hall in the evening was also determined. 

The Finance Committee proceeded to solicit subscriptions 
necessary to carry out the plan and met with a generous 
response from the people of Buffalo. A list of the subscribers 
will be found in the Appendix No. 7, and although the amount 
was not sufficient to complete the monument it enabled the 
General Committee to build the foundation, erect the head- 
stones, and pay all the expenses of the Indian delegates and 
of the ceremonies. 

The question of the lot in Forest Lawn was brought before 
the trustees of the cemeteiy, and they generously donated to 
the society the large and conspicuous plot .near the main 
entrance, where the chiefs were interred. The lot is known as 
lot 1 in section 12 on the cemetery maps, and a diagram will 
be found in the Appendix No. 3 showing the location of 
monument, head-stones and graves. 

The Committee on Program, by the advice of the General 
Committee, extended an invitation to the Hon. Horatio Sey- 
mour, of Utica, to deliver the oration at Music Hall, but 
received from him a letter of regrets, declining on the ground 
of ill health. His letter, which is of historical importance. 

will be found in the Appendix No. 2. Subsequently, the 
committee extended an invitation to the Hon. George W. 
Clinton, of Albany, formerly of Buffalo, who consented to 
deliver the oration. 

The Committee on Selection of Indian Chiefs for Interment 
made several visits to the old mission cemetery, of which 
mention has been made, accompanied by the venerable mis- 
sionary, Mrs. Wright, and by aged Indians who had been long 
familiar with the locality, some of them related to Red Jacket 
by ties of blood or marriage. The leading men of the Senecas, 
before the removal of the tribe from the Buffalo Creek Reser- 
vation, lay in graves excavated in a small elevated area, at or 
near the center of the cemetery. The earth there is a dry 
loam. The graves were two or more feet deeper than it is the 
practice now to dig them. They uniformly faced the rising 
sun. Notwithstanding this sacred spot is the property of the 
Indians, consecrated to the repose of their dead and those 
of their faithful missionaries, it has been invaded by the 
whites, who have buried their deceased friends there in con- 
siderable numbers. It was found necessary to tunnel under 
many of these surreptitious graves in order to rescue the red 
proprietors who slumbered beneath the strange intruders. 
About forty graves in all were opened, and all the work was 
done under the supervision of Henry D. Farwell, Esq., the 
undertaker. Few, if any, articles were found with the remains, 
save an occasional pipe and the decayed fragments of blankets, 
broadcloth tunics, silken sashes and turbans, and beaded 
leggins and moccasins. Exception should be made in the 
instance of a very young child, whose little head was enwrapped 
in a voluminous silk handkerchief. In a silken knot close to 
its ear was a tiny, neatly-carved rattle of bone, and on its 


breast, above the little folded hands, was a small and pretty 
porcelain drinking cup. But seven of the skeletons could be 
positively identified, namely, those of Young King, Destroy 
Town, Captain Pollard, his wife and his granddaughter, Tall 
Peter, and Little Billy, the war chief. Nine others, doubtless 
the remains of warriors famous in their day, were exhumed, 
buried with them at Forest Lawn, and will be designated as 
the undistinguished dead. The work of exhuming and re- 
interring the tenants of graves in other neglected Indian 
burial-grounds is contemplated, but was temporarily postponed 
for valid reasons. 

An extract from the Buffalo Courier of Oct. 9, concerning 
the proceedings of the day before, will be found in the 
Appendix No. 4. 

In the Appendix No. 5 will be found an extract from the 
Buffalo Morning Express of Oct. 7, 1884, with reference to the 
ceremonies, etc., of the occasion ; also in Appendix No. 6 is 
an extract from the same paper of Oct. 8th. 

An official list of the Indian delegates present, with their 
Indian names, will be found in the Appendix No. 1. 

There will also be found in the Appendix various other 
matter, correspondence, poems, and extracts from papers, etc., 
of historical interest. See Index. 

The following account of the proceedings is mainly extracted 
from the files of the Daily Commercial Advertiser of Oct. 9 
and IO, 1884. 



Commemorative Exercises at Music Hall, Etc. 

Thursday, October 9, 1884, was the day set apart by the 
Buffalo Historical Society for the final re-interment of the 
remains of Red Jacket, and other famous Indian chiefs, in the 
burial lot at Forest Lawn, donated for the purpose by the 
officers of the cemetery. The event is one of pathetic as well 
as historical interest, and the ceremonies tend to revive legends 
and stories of the times when the Indians were lords of the 
soil. It also recalls to the mind of the student many notable 
occurrences of early American history, not the least of which, 
perhaps, is the important part played by the confederation of 
the Iroquois, in preserving a great portion of North America 
from French domination. 

" By the treaty made at Ryswick," 

Saith Great Britain to the French king, 

With her statesmen of wise foreheads, 

Toward the setting sun far sighted, 
" Are the subtle, stately red men, 

The leagued Iroquois Six Nations, 

Our allies, and own the sceptre, 

In the sinewy hand of England. 

Where their bow or hatchet ruleth, 

Roameth safe the British lion, 

In the Adirondack gorges, 

In Niagara's huge thunders, 

In Ohio's crackling forests, 

Croucheth fierce the British lion." 

Our readers have been kept informed, from time to time, of 
the preparations made by the Historical Society, and we need 


not go over the ground again. The work has involved no 
little labor and effort on the part of the members of the society. 
Wednesday afternoon the visiting Indians assembled at the 
rooms of the Historical Society and listened to addresses by 
Mr. William C. Bryant, himself a Seneca by adoption, and 
Gen. Ely S. Parker, of New York, one of the fifty sachems of 
the allied Six Nations. The latter's speech was especially 
interesting and affecting to the Indians present, and was inter- 
preted in their dialect by his brother, Chief Nicholas H. Parker. 
A council was then organized to make final preparations for 
the burial ceremonies. At a few minutes before four o'clock 
the interpreter announced that the bearers selected for Red 
Jacket's casket were Chiefs Levi Jonathan, an Onondaga ; 
Benjamin Carpenter, a Cayuga ; Henry Clinch, an Oneida ; 
John Fraser, a Mohawk ; Moses Hill, a Tuscarora ; and Andrew 
Snow, a Seneca. To bear the remains of Destroy Town were 
Chiefs John Buck, an Onondaga ; Joseph Porter, an Oneida; 
Thomas Isaac, a Tuscarora ; and Peter Powless, a Mohawk. 
Chiefs David Hill and John Hill, Senecas, Robert David, a 
Cayuga, the Rev. Zachariah Jemison, a Seneca, were selected 
to carry the casket of Young King. Chiefs Thomas Lay, 
Silver Smith, William Jones, and John Jacket, all Senecas, 
were chosen to bear Little Billy's remains ; and Chief Nicholas 
Parker, a Seneca, John Mountpleasant, a Tuscarora, Thomas 
David and Thomas Jemison, Cayugas, to carry the bones of 
Tall Peter. A choir was also selected, and Chief John Buck, 
from Grand River, Canada, who is the hereditary custodian of 
the wampum belts of the Six Nations, was selected to deliver 
the address of condolence. The speakers for Music Hall this 
evening were announced as David Hill, a Seneca ; Peter 
Powless, a Mohawk ; John Buck, an Onondaga; and Henry 
Clinch, an Oneida. 

The casket of Red Jacket was then opened for the last time, 
and each of the Indians present viewed the remains. It was 
then permanently closed and the council broke up. 

J 3 

Among those present were Mrs. Harriet Maxwell Converse, 
of New York, who takes a great interest in all connected with 
the Indians. She was given, by Mrs. Jones, a silver button 
worn by the wife of Red Jacket. Mrs. Converse has written 
many poems of Indian lore and history. They are being 
revised by John G. Whittier, the poet, and will soon appear in 
book form. 

Thursday morning, shortly after ten o'clock, the caskets 
were borne from the rooms of the society to the hearses in 
waiting on Court street, by the Indian bearers, who sang a 
dirge meanwhile in a mournful undertone. Many of the chiefs 
wore their native costume, and the scene was a very picturesque 
one. An immense crowd gathered, which was kept back by 
the efforts of several policemen. The long cortege of six 
hearses and seventy-five carriages moved out Main street to 
the cemetery. The carriages were occupied by the bearers 
and Indian guests and by members of the Historical Society, 
and many old and prominent citizens, besides a number of 

The procession moved out Main street to Virginia, through 
to Delaware avenue, and thence to Forest Lawn Cemetery, 
where it arrived at 1 1.20. A large crowd of ladies and gentle- 
men had already assembled, and nearly two hundred vehicles 
were counted on the cemetery driveways. The location of 
the Indian lot is not far from the Delaware avenue entrance, 
on a level piece of ground. A temporary stand had been 
erected near the graves, and it was draped with the American 
colors. The row of graves, six in number, was in front of the 
grand stand. They were cut east and west, of uniform depth, 
but varying in length and breadth ; that for the remains of 
Red Jacket being much larger than the others, so as to afford 
room for the stone casing. There was a pile of evergreens at 
the head of the graves. Captain Cable was on hand with a 
large force of patrolmen and rendered valuable assistance to 
the committee in preserving order and preventing the crowd 


from encroaching on reserved space. The carriages and hearses 
drew up in front of the spot, the caskets were reverently lifted 
out and carried by the Indians to the graves, where they were 
gently placed on temporary girders over the excavations. 
Then the Indians stepped back, and fresh and fragrant flowers 
were laid on the caskets by the Misses Sheldon, daughters of 
Hon. James Sheldon, a prominent member of the Historical 
Society. The Indians were invited upon the platform and 
given front seats, and other chairs were taken by members of 
the society, their guests, and old and prominent citizens. 

A more perfect October day could not be imagined. There 
was not a cloud in the sky; the sun shone bright and warm, 
and there was just enough wind to now and then stir the 
leaves on the trees and move the three American flags hoisted 
at the front of the platform. The beautiful cemetery, with its 
wealth of autumn foliage, never presented a more attractive 
appearance. The scene was a strange, solemn and impressive 
one, and will not soon be effaced from the minds of those who 
witnessed it. The packed stand, with the Indians in bright- 
colored garb prominent in the foreground, the empty graves, 
ready to receive the polished oak caskets with their precious 
contents, the thousand or more faces of those crowding around, 
and the array of vehicles of every description — all this went 
to make a unique and picturesque scene. Among those most 
conspicuous on the platform were Mr. William C. Bryant, 
Judge Sheldon, Miss Jessie Osborne, a granddaughter of Brant, 
chief of the Mohawks, two young ladies in black, the Misses 
Eva and Pauline Johnson, daughters of the late Mohawk chief 
George H. M. Johnson, of Chiefswood, near Brantford. The 
Indian in regular army uniform was Gen. Parker, who was 
military secretary of General Grant's staff during the war of 
the Rebellion. He sat next to his sister, Caroline Mount- 
pleasant, whose husband, the head chief of the Tuscaroras. was 
by her side. Then there was John Buck, in citizen's dress, 
chief of the Onondagas, Nicholas Parker, brother of the gen- 


eral and chief of the Senecas on the New York reservations. 
He was in full dress, with sash, tomahawk, head-gear, etc. The 
oldest Indian present was Andrew Snow, a warrior from the 
Cattaraugus Reservation. Another warrior from the same 
reservation in buck-skin suit, head-dress and a touch of paint 
on his cheeks, was Silver Smith. John Jacket, a Seneca chief, 
and William Nephew, grandson of the noted Seneca chief 
Black Snake, wore native costume. Levi Jonathan, chief of 
the Onondagas, and Chester C. Lay (Ho-do-an-joah — Bearing 
the Earth), United States interpreter, a Seneca Indian, were 
also pointed out. 

When order and quiet was obtained, Mr. Bryant announced 
the order of exercises. They opened with a short prayer in 
the Seneca tongue by a native, the Rev. Mr. Jemison, a 
Christian minister. All the Indians covered their heads 
respectfully, while most of the spectators gazed curiously at 
the venerable-looking man speaking a strange language. 

Mr. W T illiam Clement Bryant next delivered the following 
address : 

mr. bryant's address. 

Friends and Brethren : 

The clamor of contending parties in a great political contest is 
calculated to absorb public attention to the exclusion of subjects 
of an ideal, historic or sentimental character. Amid the din and 
uproar of this strife for the spoils and honors of office, how few 
have eye or ear to perceive the pathos, the mournful significance 
of a scene like this. We are here to bury the aboriginal lords of the 
domain in which we dwell, and which is now all our own. They 
met our pioneer fathers in amity, and divided with them their slender 
store of corn and venison. They freely shed their blood for us on 
this frontier in the second war for independence. They are now 
nearly all wasted away, and the once proud and warlike Senecas will 
soon be classed with the tribes and races of men that were, but shall 
be no more. 1 Their history, and that of their kindred and confed- 
erate tribes, composing the Iroquois, or Six Nations, is inextricably 

1 There are very few Senecas of the full blood now living — perhaps less than a 
score. The white blood predominates in the veins of the majority of the " Nation." 


interwoven with our earlier annals. They constituted the most 
gifted and powerful member of the American aboriginal family. 
For generations they formed an impregnable barrier against the 
restless, daring and ambitious designs of the French. Their fidelity 
and valor largely determined the destinies of a continent. 

At the period of the breaking out of hostilities in the revolution- 
ary war the Senecas had reached the highest state of tranquility and 
happiness which a savage race can be permitted to attain. The bulk 
of their population dwelt in the valley of the Genesee and on the 
shores of the contiguous lakes. The conditions here were exceed- 
ingly favorable to the growth of a vigorous race, even under the 
disadvantages and limitations incident to the hunter state. At the 
most favorable position in the temperate zone ; with a climate 
equable and bracing; a land of billowy hills and blossomy vales- 
drained by a river whose annual overflow enriched broad belts of 
natural clearing, that in the autumn exulted in a luxuriant harvest 
of golden maize — a river which, with a short portage to the Ohio, 
gave their flotillas of birchen canoes access to the heart of a con- 
tinent ; diversified by sunless forests and wide stretches of cloud- 
flecked prairies, 1 whose solitude was enlivened by herds of deer and 
elk; spangled by lakes, whose crystal depths were populous with 
fishes and on whose placid bosoms innumerable wild fowl plumed 
their breasts — a region of marvelous beauty and fertility, the Genesee 
country has been aptly termed the paradise of the red men. The 
Indian's appreciation of its transcendent loveliness is embodied in 
the imperishable name which he bestowed upon it, Gennisheyo, the 
shining or beautiful .valley. 

The Senecas, at the middle of the eighteenth century, were slowly 
awakening from the spell of the hunter state. Their chief source of 
subsistence had ceased to be the precarious chase, and had become 
to a large extent the fruits of their own rude husbandry. From the 
early Jesuit missionaries they had obtained the seeds of the apple, 
peach and pear, and had surrounded their villages with thriving 
orchards. From the Dutch settlers on the distant Mohawk they had 
obtained cattle and horses, and had learned to prize these inesti- 
mable adjuncts of civilized life. They had imbibed from the same 
sources some rude notions of domestic architecture, and had learned 
to covet the comforts and conveniences of the dwellings reared by 

1 A large portion of Western New York was originally a prairie country. See 
Dwight's Travels ; Spofford's Gazetteer ; Marshall's La Salle, etc. 


the pale-faces. A comparatively pure, spiritual, religious faith and the 
beneficent workings of their wonderful scheme of government, stim- 
ulated by their observation of the white man's manifold inventions, 
had begun to work a change in the condition and prospects of our 
indigenous population. 

The Iroquois aimed at universal sovereignty, and one of the con- 
ditions of peace imposed by the haughty victors was total abstinence 
from war. 1 Acknowledged masters of the continent, the energies 
which had found exercise in war would naturally have turned to pur- 
suits more consonant with peace. The process of transformation 
would have required centuries. But think of the long ages which 
witnessed the evolution of the modern Englishman from the painted 
savage whom Caesar met in Britain. 

Oratory was not alone a natural gift, but an art among the Iro- 
quois. It enjoined painful study, unremitting practice and sedulous 
observation of the style and methods of the best masters. Red 
Jacket did not rely upon his native powers alone, but cultivated the 
art with the same assiduity that characterized the great Athenian 
orator. The Iroquois, as their earliest English historian observed, 
cultivated an attic or classic elegance of speech which entranced 
every ear among their red auditory. 

Their language was flexible and sonorous, the sense largely de- 
pending upon inflection, copious in vowel sounds, abounding in met- 
aphor ; affording constant opportunity for the ingenious combination 
and construction of words to image delicate and varying shades of 
thought, and to express vehement manifestations of passion ; admit- 
ting of greater and more sudden variations in pitch than is permissi- 
ble in English oratory, and encouraging pantomimic gesture for 
greater force and effect. In other words, it was not a cold, artificial, 
mechanical medium for the expression of thought and emotion, or 
the concealment of either, but was constructed, as we may fancy, 
much as was the tuneful tongue spoken by our first parents who 
stood in even closer relations to nature. 

That great incentive to eloquence, patriotism, was not lacking to 
these Ciceros of the wilds. No nation of which we have a record 
was dominated in a larger degree by this lofty sentiment. They 
were proud of their history and 'their achievements, devotedly at- 
tached to their institutions, and enthusiastic at the mention of the 

1 The name by which their constitution or organic law was known among them, 
was Kayanerenh-Kowa, The Great PEACE. — Hales Book of Rites, p. jj. 


long line of chieftains and sages, who, from the era of Hi-a-wat-ha, 
had assisted in erecting this grand Indian empire. The time will 
come when the institutions, polity, eloquence and achievements of 
this remarkable people will be themes of study for the youth in our 
schools of learning. The unvarying courtesy, sobriety and dignity 
of their convocations led one of their learned Jesuit historians to 
liken them to the Roman senate. 

We boast of our chivalric treatment and estimate of the feebler 
sex. We delight to measure our superiority over the nations of an- 
tiquity by this standard. The Indian woman cultivated the soil in 
a rude, primitive way, and performed a considerable amount of toil 
connected with their simple mode of life. She accepted her lot 
cheerfully and labored no harder than the wives of our average 
farmers and mechanics. She is represented in our' popular histories 
as a drudge and slave to her haughty and lazy lord. The fact is far 
different. She was regarded as the only rightful owner of the soil. 
She was entitled to a voice in their counsels when emergencies arose 
affecting the weal of the nation, represented by a speaker of her own 
selection, a voice that was respectfully heeded and often proved po- 
tential and decisive. The children born to her belonged to her clan 
and not to that of her husband. In the event of a vacant chieftain- 
ship, it was the prerogative of the chief matron of the family to 
name the favored one who should be his successor. There is not an 
instance in history where the appeal which defenseless female virtue 
makes to the stronger sex, was disregarded by her Iroquois captors. 
Has our boasted civilization paid greater homage to the character of 
woman than did these generous barbarians ? 

The outbreak of the revolution did not alone check the new im- 
pulse among the Senecas toward progress; it was the signal for 
the downfall Of the whole Iroquois confederacy. The Senecas, 
denying their ancient traditions, had wisely resolved upon a position 
of neutrality at the beginning of the contest. Partly by artifice, 
partly by fervent appeals to that covenant chain which had so long 
bound them to the British, they were induced to give their allegiance 
reluctantly to the latter. They had no concern in the quarrel, and 
the issue, if unfavorable to Britain, involved irretrievable disaster to 
her humble allies. The long and bloody war, the desolating cam- 
paign of Sullivan, signalized by the merciless destruction of their 
dwellings, orchards, crops, domestic animals and all their wealth, 
save the blackened soil ; the winter of unexampled rigor that 


followed, and which rendered recource to the chase, as a means of 
subsistence, impossible, were fatal to the Seneca nation. The Mo- 
hawks and the bulk of the other confederate tribes, save the friendly 
Oneidas and the Senecas, followed the British flag to Canada. The 
remnant of the Senecas, through the humane intervention of Wash- 
ington, were permitted to return and rake the embers from their 
devastated hearths, but they returned as vassals and no longer a 
sovereign nation. 

Red Jacket returned with them. He was young when the war 
commenced. We can easily conjure up the figure of the youthful 
warrior from the shreds of tradition which have come down to us — 
an Indian Apollo, graceful, alert, quick-witted, fleet of foot, the 
favorite messenger of British officers to convey intelligence from one 
military post to another, and who bestowed upon him the traditional 
scarlet tunic, and caused him to be christened Otetiani, or "Always 
Ready." He acquired no distinction as a warrior during the revolu- 
tionary struggle, for he was born an orator, and, while morally brave, 
lacked the stolid insensibility to suffering and slaughter which char- 
acterized their war captains. We can imagine him, at the end of the 
war, grown older, wiser in experience and reflection, more ambitious 
and crafty, with greater confidence in his rich, natural gifts of logic, 
persuasion and invective, and attaining, by virtue of these attributes, 
the chief place of power and influence in his nation — alas ! a peeled 
and broken nation. The repose, however, so essential to the recu- 
peration of this wasted people was denied them. Every breeze 
wafted to the ears of the Indian hunter the ring of the white man's 
axe and the crash of falling trees. The restless feet of the pale- 
faces were on their track, first a slender stream of traders and 
adventurers, many of them seeking the far woodland solitudes as a 
shelter from outraged arid pursuing justice ; then a tide of immigrants 
ever waxing in volume until the Seneca territory was islanded by a 
sea of covetous, hungry pale-faces. 

Red Jacket was no longer th'e petted though humble Otetiani, but 
the Sagoyewatha of his tribe; the " keeper-awake " of a broken, war- 
wasted people fast lapsing into that comatose state which only by a 
little precedes dissolution. He loved his people, who were still the 
proprietors of a magnificent domain. He yearned over them as a 
hunted lion over its whelps. The efforts of the " gamblers," as he 
aptly termed the land speculators, and the companies endowed with 
incomprehensible rights of pre-emption, to dispossess the ancient 
lords of the soil, lashed his soul into fury. He hated the enemies of 


his people with fierce and unrelenting hatred, and he consecrated 
the remaining years of his life to the work of baffling their mercenary 
schemes. Inconceivably difficult Avas the task. He could neither 
read nor speak English, nor any other language spoken by the whites, 
and yet his speeches in council, mutilated fragments of which still 
remain, disclose an acute and lofty intellect, a vigorous understand- 
ing, a marvelous memory, an imagination and wit electric and 
phenomenal. His logic was as keen as a Damascus blade; he was 
a master of satire and invective; he thoroughly understood the 
windings and intricacies of what we term human nature. His 
denunciation had the terrible vehemence of the thunderbolt, and 
anon his oratory would be as grateful and caressing as the zephyrs 
of midsummer. Replying to Mr. Ogden, the head of the great 
Ogden Land Company, he exclaimed with ineffable scorn, " Did I not 
tell you the last time we met that whilst Red Jacket lived you would 
get no more land of the Indians? How, then, while you see him 
alive and strong," striking his hand violently on his breast, " do you 
think to make him a liar ? " 

Often the fierceness of his temper, the righteous indignation that 
swelled his bosom, impelled him to hurl defiance at his foes, and to 
use language the possible consequences of which caused the more 
timid and abject of his followers to tremble with apprehension. But 
Red Jacket would retract not a single word, although a majority of 
the chiefs would sometimes secretly deprecate the severity of his 
utterances. Again, on other occasions, sorely beset and almost 
despairing, he would essay to melt the hearts of the pitiless pursuers 
of his people, and give utterance to such touching words as these: 
"We first knew you a feeble plant which wanted a little earth 
whereon to grow. We gave it to you — and afterward, when we 
could have trod you under our feet, we watered and protected you, 
and now you have grown to be a mighty tree, whose top reaches the 
clouds, and whose branches overspread the whole land ; whilst we, 
who were then the tall pine of the forest, have become the feeble 
plant, and need your protection." 

Again, assuming the pleading tones of a suppliant, he said, " When 
you first came here, you clung around our knee, and called us father. 
We took you by the hand and called you brothers. You have grown 
greater than we, so that we no longer can reach up to your hand. 
But we wish to cling around your knee and be called your children." 

Anon, pointing to some crippled warriors of the war of 1S1:, 


among the Indian portion of his auditors, and, blazing with indigna- 
tion, he exclaimed : " * * * It was not our quarrel. We knew 
not that you were right. We asked not. We cared not. It is 
enough for us that you were our brothers. We fought and bled for 
you. And now (pointing to some Indians who had been wounded 
in the contest), dare you pretend that our father, the president, while 
he sees our blood running yet fresh from the wounds received while 
fighting his battles, has sent you with a message to persuade us to 
relinquish the poor remains of our once boundless possessions — to 
sell the birthplace of our children, and the graves of our fathers? 
No ! Sooner than believe that he gave you this message, we will 
believe that you have stolen your commission, and are a cheat and 
a liar! " 

In debate Red Jacket proved himself the peer of the most adroit 
and able men with whom he was confronted. He had the provisions 
of every treaty between the Iroquois and the whites by heart. On a 
certain occasion, in a council at which Gov. Tompkins was present, 
a dispute arose as to the terms of a certain treaty. " You have for- 
gotten," said the agent ; " we have it written down on paper." " The 
paper then tells a lie," rejoined Red Jacket. " I have it written 
down here," he added, placing his hand with great dignity upon his 
brow. " This is the book the Great Spirit has given the Indian ; it 
does not lie ! " A reference was made to the treaty in question, 
when, to the astonishment of all present, the document confirmed 
every word the unlettered statesman had uttered. He was a man of 
resolute, indomitable will. He never acknowledged a defeat until 
every means of defense was exhausted. In his demeanor toward 
the whites he was dignified and generally reserved. He had an 
innate refinement and grace of manner that stamped him the true 
gentleman, because with him these virtues were inborn and not 
simulated or acquired. He would interrupt the mirthful conversation 
of his Indian companions by assuring their white host that the 
unintelligible talk and laughter to which he listened had no relevancy 
to their kind entertainer or their surroundings. 

At the outset Red Jacket was disposed to welcome civilization and 
Christianity among his people, but he was not slow to observe that 
proximity to the whites inevitably tended toward the demoralization 
of the Senecas; that to preserve them from contamination they must 
be isolated from the influence of the superior race, all of whom, 
good and bad, he indiscriiai- ..:. 1\ classed as Christians. He was 


bitterly opposed by the missionaries and their converts. He could 
not always rely upon- his constituency, torn as they were by dissen- 
sions, broken-spirited, careless of the future, impatient at any inter- 
ruption of present gratification, and incapable of discerning, as he- 
did, the terrible, inexorable destiny toward which they were slowly 

In this unequal and pitiable struggle to preserve the inheritance 
and nationality of his people, his troubled and unhappy career drew 
slowly to its close. That keen and subtle intellect, that resolute soul 
which, David-like, unpanoplied, without arms or armor, save the 
simple ones that nature gave, dared encounter the Goliaths of the 
young republic, were dimmed and chilled at last. Advancing years 
and unfortunate excesses had accomplished their legitimate work. 1 
The end to that clouded and melancholy career was fast approaching. 
But until the close, when death was imminent, he had no concern or 
thought which did not affect his people. He visited them from cabin 
to cabin, repeating his warnings and injunctions, the lessons of a 
life devoted to their interests, and bade them a last and affectionate 
farewell. He died calmly, like a philosopher, in the arms of the 
noble Christian woman who has made this society the custodian of 
his sacred relics. He was a phenomenon, a genius, with all the 
frailties and all the fascination which that word implies — in natural 
powers equal to any of the civilized race. 

Granted that he was vain ; granted that he sometimes dissembled 
like one of our modern statesmen ; granted that toward the close of 
his unhappy life he partook too often of that Circean cup which has 
proved the bane of so many men of genius of every race, we cannot 
change our estimate of his greatness; he remains still the consum- 
mate orator, the resolute, unselfish patriot, the forest statesman 
centuries in advance of his race ; the central figure in that little 
group of aboriginal heroes which stands out in lurid relief on the 
canvas of American history. 

He has been fitly called " The last of the Senecas." His life was 
troubled and unhappy. There has been no rest allowed even to his 
bones in the lowly grave which should have been sacred and unpro- 
faned. We now commit the mouldering relics of his humanity, 

1 My friend, Hon. Lewis F. Allen, criticises this expression, claiming that, while 
Red Jacket drank deeply at times, it was only occasional and never when public 
affairs demanded his attention ; that the opprobrious word, drunkard, could not 
justly be applied to him. Consult Stone s Life of Red Jacket ; also, Publications 
Buffalo Historical Society, vol. I, p. 351 (Hon. Orlando Allen). 


surrounded, as he wished, by those of kindred and friends, to their 
last resting-place. And here the dust of our antagonistic races will 
commingle undisturbed, until the final summons shall call alike, from 
M the ostentatious mausoleum of the white man and the humble grave 
of the Indian," the innumerable dead to one common judgment. 

Chief John Buck, the hereditary " Keeper of the Wampum- 
belts," then arose, holding in his hand a belt of wampum 
kept by the Nation for over 200 years. The other Indians 
also arose. Chief Buck then sang in long, low mournful tones 
the following chant in the Onondaga language : 

Now listen, ye who established the Great League, 1 

Now it has become old — 

Now there is nothing but wilderness, 

Ye are in your graves who established it — 

Ye have taken it with you, and have placed it under you. 

And there is nothing left but a desert. 

There you have taken your intellects with you. 

What ye established ye have taken with you. 

Ye have placed under your heads what ye established — 

The Great League. 

Then the other chiefs joined in the chorus as follows, which 
is also given in the Indian tongue : 

Haih-haih ! Woe ! Woe ! 

Jig-atk-on-tek ! Hearken ye ! 

Ni-yon-Kha ! We are diminished ! 

Haih-haih ! Woe ! Woe ! 

Te-jos-ka-wa-yen-ton. The clear land has become a thicket. 

Haih-haih ! Woe ! Woe ! 

Ska-hen-ta-hen-yon. The clear places are deserted. 

Haih ! Woe ! 

Sha-tyher-arta — They are in their graves — 

Hot-yi-wis-ah-on-gwe — They who established it — 

Haih ! t , Woe ! 

Ka-yan-een-go-ha. The Great League. 

Ne-ti-ken-en-ho-nen Yet they declared, 

Ne-ne Ken-yoi-wat-at-ye — It should endure — 

Ka-yan-een-go-ha. The Great League. 

Haih ! Woe ! 

Wa-hai-wak-ay-on-nhe-ha. Their work has grown old. 

Haih ! Woe ! 

Net-ho-wat-yon-gwen-ten-the. Thus we are become miserable. 

The League of the Iroquois or Five Nations. Consult Morgan ; Hale's Book of 

Rites, a most admirable work ; Parkman, etc. 


• When they finished, some thirty representatives of the Six 
Nations marched down from the stand in Indian file, and 
ranged themselves by the sides of the caskets. 

Chief Buck, who had been chosen to deliver the address of 
condolence, spoke in Onondaga for a few minutes, the other 
chiefs listening with bowed heads. The chant was again 
repeated. Many of the a'udience were moved to tears at the 
strange sight and melancholy sounds. 

Chief John Jacket, a Seneca sachem, followed the lowering 
of the remains by a speech in Seneca, which was replied to by 
Chief Buck in the Onondaga tongue, and a benediction was 
pronounced by the Rev. Albert Anthony, a Delaware, from 
the Grand River Agency. This closed the exercises at the 
grave. The Indians, delegates and visitors then took carriages 
and were driven back to their homes. 

At Music Hall, Thursday Evening, October 9, 1SS4. 

The Red Jacket commemorative exercises at Music Hall, 
Thursday evening, were attended by fully 3,000 people. The 
stage was occupied by the Indian chiefs in their picturesque 
costume, also by the officers of the Historical Society and a 
number of prominent citizens and ladies. The front of the stage 
was handsomely decorated with flowers and plants from Judge 
Sheldon's conservatory. An orchestra, selected for the occa- 
sion, furnished musical selections. Owing to the illness o( the 
President, Stephen M. Clement, Esq.. Vice-president of the 
Historical Society, presided. After a solo by Rev. A. An- 
thony, a Delaware Indian, Chief Judge Sheldon made a few 
introductory remarks as follows : 



v) til E|' iy r.i ; til r-l - ■ _•. •>- "'"-'" 

•V..-r>- ■■■- &tf 

Red Jacket's House, Seneca Village. Residence of Jones, the Interpreter. 


The Buffalo Historical Society, mindful ever of the trust reposed 
in it by a gene'rous people, to gather and garner all material of his- 
tory, conceived many years ago the work which this day has been 
successfully accomplished. 

The officers of this society desire, in this public manner, to ac- 
knowledge the munificence of our citizens, and the interest and 
devotion of those whose labors have contributed to the result. 
Their reward is to be found, not only in the praise of all men in the 
present, but in* the thanks of future generations of scholars and 
philosophers and historians. This day, and the memorial of all that 
is connected with it, has rescued from oblivion much that was essen- 
tial to the truth of history, in regard to a race of the human family 
fast fading from the earth. 

Four centuries ago, the existence of the continent of America 
was unknown to the civilized world. Its discoverers found it inhab- 
ited by many tribes and nations, differing in marked characteristics 
from the known inhabitants of the globe; as indigenous to the 
country as its flora and its fauna, but whose origin was lost in the 
most remote antiquity. From the Arctic Ocean to Cape Horn, a 
state of complete or semi-barbarism prevailed, with the exception of 
the Aztecs of Mexico and the country of the Incas of Peru. Their 
civilization was, in all probability, developed in the long process of 
centuries, but if we judge from pre-historic remains found elsewhere 
upon the continent and the other recognized indicia, the barbarism 
of the tribes was not primeval. It seems to be well established, in fact 
and theory, that they were the sad remnants of nations who possessed 
a high civilization, long anterior to the times of Mexican or Peruvian 
development, but had fallen before some inexorable fate. And why 
not, when we know that the changes of centuries reduced the polished 
and powerful nations of the Grecian world to a state of vassallage 
and semi-barbarism, and even the glories and grandeur that centered 
at the Forum and the Coliseum, departed in the wreck of time ? 

We must leave these questions to the determination of learned 
ethnologists, and deal only with the well-known facts which have 
been ascertained and recorded by the explorers of our continent. 

They found, existing where we now live, that remarkable con- 
federacy of the Six Nations, or the Iroquois, whose representatives 
are gathered with us this day. The mere existence of such a league 
is an evidence of the fact that those who originated and formed it 
possessed political wisdom and statesmanship of a high order. It was 


.formed in the interests of peace and humanity to protect themselves 
by their union from the aggressions of other warlike and barbarous 
tribes, and maintain their integrity as a nation. Some master mind 
conceived and carried out the plan of such a confederation ; some 
statesman like the great orator and chieftain, long ago enshrined in 
the temple of immortality, whose remains we have, reverently, this 
day laid in their last resting-place, amid the surroundings of the 
white man's civilization. 

. The history of the Iroquois, of their glory and their conquests, 
is a part of the history of our land, and will be perpetuated in the 
learned and philosophical orations which are pronounced to-day. 
Eventful day! the last occasion when the representative chieftains 
and sages and warriors of the mighty Iroquois will ever be assembled 
for the world to look upon with the sympathy and tenderness of our 
human nature. And that civilization which raises monuments to its 
heroes and statesmen and philosophers and perpetuates their name 
by undying memorials, has now done for those who lived and died 
without its pale, what barbarism never accomplished for its own. 

We are not assembled to speak of the wrongs of the Indian race, 
in the struggles which have occurred for the possession of the new 
world. Yet some consolation may be derived from the certain 
improvement which has taken place among them, owing to the 
fostering care of governments, and the benevolent and humanitarian 
exertions which have tended to the amelioration of their condition, 
and their elevation in the scale of humanity. We know there are 
gathered here, upon this occasion, their representative men, who, in 
all that constitutes the dignity and nobility of human nature are the 
peers of the men of any civilization, and women, endowed with all 
the graces, and those qualities of tenderness and truth and divine 
self-abnegation, which glorify the female character. 

It is for another to speak to us to-night, at length upon the topics 
proper for the occasion, one venerable and learned in all philosophy, 
beloved by all society, and who needs no introduction to a people 
who have so often honored him. 

The venerable ex-Judge George W. Clinton was then intro- 
duced, and delivered the following historical address : 


Mr. President; 

The joy with which I revisit Buffalo — this city of my love — and 
exchange greetings with the very many friends who are so dear to 
me, is tempered by a grief, not without hope, for the beloved ones 
who have left* us and sleep here in peace. 

Friends my soul with joy remembers ; 

How like quivering flames they start, 
When I fan the dying embers 

Round the hearthstone of my heart ! 

— Longfellow s " River Charles." 

I am distressed, too, by a sense of my inadequacy to do due 
honor to this occasion, and justify your choice of an orator. How 
admirably Horatio Seymour, with his intimate knowledge of our old 
history, his literary excellence and his nice sense of justice, would 
have gratified your every expectation ! How easy, full, exact and 
noble beyond comparison would have been Orsamus H. Marshall's 
performance of a duty I shrank from, and would never have under- 
taken had I not so longed to see Buffalo once more. Buffalo must 
count him among her lost treasures and cherish his memory, for 
his life was fertile of good deeds and his works brought imperishable 
laurels to her brow. His life was lovely, his friendship a consolation 
and support. 

The solemn proceedings we have this day participated in — the 
re-interment of Sa-go-ye-wath-a, the greatest Indian orator this 
continent has given birth to, and of so many distinguished chiefs and 
warriors of his nation, and of all the nameless recoverable remains 
of Senecas — excite mingled feelings of sadness and of satisfaction. 
Who can survey the ruins of a famous city, or traverse a war-depop- 
ulated land, or mark the decadence of a great nation, and not feel 
inclined to weep? Who can behold the volunteer performance by 
private hands of a public duty ignored and neglected by the public, 
and not admire and bless the doers ? I dare not say that it was the 
clear and superior duty of New York to protect the ashes of these 
illustrious Senecas from further desecration and give them fitting 
monuments, but the state would have won, by the assumption of it, 
,new honor. And it clearly was not the special and exclusive duty 


of the Buffalo Historical Society and its friends to take this burthen 
upon themselves. The full, appropriate and reverent manner of its 
performance reflects honor upon the society. And I apprehend that 
the generous and appreciative action of the Buffalo Cemetery Asso- 
ciation deserves a record as imperishable as the monument itself. 
Excuse me for remarking that, in my poor opinion, and in the 
judgment of many better men, the conduct of your society in this 
high matter cannot but win it fame and assure it a career of usefulness. 
The people of this great city, distinguished as it is for opulence and 
public spirit, cannot but render a cordial and efficient support to 
this society; not only as a social institution of incalculable value, 
but as one which, if successful in rescuing the fading facts of history 
from oblivion, will augment the glory of Buffalo. I have reason to 
believe that its archives are rich in unpublished matter. The papers 
of our late friend, Maris B. Pierce, are now its property, and will, 
undoubtedly, throw light upon the later 'history of his nation. The 
histories of the several nations of the great confederacy before, and, 
indeed, long 'after their league was formed through the influence of 
Hayenwatha (Hiawatha), is very far from clear; and their history 
since their first contact with the whites, so far as we have it written, 
is full of doubts, and gaps, and contradictions. Tradition, however 
helped by belts or pictures, dies out, especially in unlettered tribes 
constantly imperilled by migration and by war, and is apt to be 
degraded into fable and lapse into folk-lore. The disposition of the 
Indian to withhold his traditions from the white man, or to deliver 
them to him falsely, or with a biblical covering, has died out. Cer- 
tainly we cannot believe that it exists, in the least degree, in the 
noble representatives of each and every of the Six Nations, and in 
the representative of the famous Lenape, who have this day cheered 
and gratified the society and the public with their presence and 
co-operation. They will, I doubt not, willingly and zealously aid the 
society in recovering whatever now remains unknown to it of their 
traditions and history, and in detecting falsehood and bringing truth 
to light. 

I shall say little touching Red Jacket. His life has been written 
with an approach to fullness; and he. has this day been spoken ot 
with just appreciation, and with an eloquence I cannot hope to reach. 
The written remnants of his speeches which have come down to us 
hardly justify his fame as an orator; but their topics and matter. 
shorn, by translation, as they are, of fancy and of all the graces of 

2 9 

delivery, corroborate the assertion of the judicious white men who 
heard him that he was, beyond compare, the most eloquent of all 
Indian orators. In 1811 De Witt Clinton mentioned him as "an 
extraordinary orator who had arisen among the Senecas and attained 
the first distinctions by his eloquence." If he had been as brave as 
Farmer's Brother he would have been a giant indeed ; with the 
wisdom of his great rival, the Cornplanter, he might have made his 
nation happy and secure in the paths of industry and peace. But 
he had no military talent; and, though he loved his nation and was 
intensely devoted to what he deemed its interests, he utterly mistook 
the paths that would have led it upward. Washington, in his speech 
of March, 1792, to the delegates of the Five Nations, assured them 
that he desired a firm and lasting peace, and that they should " partake 
of all the comforts of this earth which can be derived from civilized 
life, enriched by the possession of industry, virtue and knowledge," 
and that he trusted that " such judicious measures would then be 
concerted, to secure to them and their children these invaluable 
objects, as would afford them cause for rejoicing while they lived." 
Red Jacket, in his response, said, "We believe that the Great Spirit 
let this island drop down from above. We also believe in His super- 
intendence' of the whole island. It is He who gives peace and 
prosperity, and He also sends evil. But prosperity has been yours. 
American brothers ! all the good which springs out of this island 
you enjoy. We, therefore, wish that we, and our children and our 
children's children, may partake with you in that enjoyment." And 
yet he inveterately opposed all measures, whether secular or holy, 
that could make them prosperous and happy. 

His person was noble, his demeanor dignified, and the intonations 
of his voice and the graces of his gesture and delivery gave impress- 
iveness to his matter. Albert H. Tracy, who saw him in council only 
after age and intemperance had enfeebled his powers, applied to 
him these lines of Milton : 

" Deep on his front engraven, 

Deliberation sat and public care, 

And princely counsel in his face yet shone, 

Majestic, though in ruins." 

— Paradise Lost, II, joo. 

Two somewhat varying accounts are given of his dying directions 
for his burial. In both, the substantial injunction is, that he should 
be interred among his people and in conformity with their customs. 
The account approved by Mr. Furniss and adopted by Mr. Conover 


is beautiful, and so accordant with the character of the man that I 
must quote it. When upon his death-bed, in parting with his Chris- 
tian wife, he said : " When I am dead it will be noised about through 
all the world. They will hear of it across the waters and say, ' Red 
Jacket, the great orator, is dead.' * * Clothe me in my simplest 
dress, put on my leggins and my moccasins, and hang around my 
neck the cross I have worn so long and let it lie upon my bosom — 
then bury me among my people. * * Your minister says the dead 
will rise. Perhaps they will. If they do, I wish to rise with my old 
comrades. I do not wish to rise with pale-faces. I wish to be 
surrounded by red men." His last wishes have been consulted. 
The bones of the mighty orator have been rescued from neglect and 
impending degradation and re-entombed, with mournful ceremonies, 
by his own people, and he now lies among his old comrades, awaiting 
the resurrection. 

We all are children of our Great Father, the Almighty God, 
Creator of all things. All of us, as were all our ancestors, however 
remote, are selfish and sinful, and need what He has vouchsafed us — 
the revelation of His will and the strength and the example of the 
Saviour. Let us acknowledge these great truths and live in mutual 
kindness and benefaction forever ! 

Of course, the so-called tradition of the Senecas that the original 
people of their nation sprung from the crest of Ge-nun-de-wah-gah, 
the Great Hill at the head of the Canandaigua Lake, is not a myth, 
for it covers no meaning and shadows forth no fact in their history. 
Like all other such stories, it was an invention of some Indian 
mother, handed down for the entertainment of the children, and 
never gained credit in the nation. 

The better theory is that God created a primal couple and endowed 
the race with the same power with which He endowed, though in a 
less degree, the horse, the dog, the cat, the ox, the fowls, and other 
animals, which He designed to be the servants and familiars of 
mankind — the power of varying and adapting himself to climate and 
to circumstance, as he moved on in his migrations, to conquer and 
to occupy the whole habitable world. I know not that any nation 
of the Aquanusehioni has any tradition or fixed belief of its origin, 
or when and whence it reached America, or of its migrations. We 
must remember that without letters history is impossible. Belts, 
picture writings and mounds of earth and stone are all perishable, 
and traditions dependent on them for endurance must, in a few years 


or ages, fade away and perish. We must remember, too, that the 
Iroquois could count but very little, if any, beyond their fingers ; 
and, of course, they had no era to date from and no record of the 
years and centuries. Hence their history, prior to its interblending 
with that~of the whites, is, in the main, dark and confused. It is 
mosMikely that they and all the peoples of our hemisphere derived 
their origin from Asia. The traditions of the Lenape, as recorded 
by Heckewelder, may be true — the tradition that they and the 
Iroquois or Mengwes came from far west, crossed the Mississippi 
together, expelled the Mound-builders east of it, and so eventually 
won their ancient seats. But one fact seems clear, and that is that 
the Five Nations, though so near in blood and almost identical in 
language, in customs and in spirit, were but fitfully at peace, and 
waged bloody and demoralizing wars with each other until Hiawatha, 
than whom the human race has never produced a wiser statesman, in 
some uncertain time, but probably in about 1460, induced them to 
form their confederacy, and so laid, broad and deep, the foundations 
of all their greatness. Their union gave them a strength which 
defied all invaders. When assailed they were as compact and in- 
domitable as the Macedonian phalanx. They conquered very widely 
and made far distant nations their tributaries. They united policy 
with power, and replenished their members, when thinned by war, by 
adopting the fittest of their captives. They were the Romans of 
this continent — Romans of a stone age. If they had had iron and 
letters they would have conquered North America, and advanced in 
mechanic arts and all the sciences, perhaps repelled the intruding 
white man and carried peaceful commerce or revengeful war across 
the broad Atlantic. And when they had run through the common 
course of all the ancient nations and fallen through luxury and sin, 
they would have left the world the records of a history as full of 
moving incidents and heroic acts as that of Greece or Rome. But, 
while this great but savage confederacy was in the dawn of its glory 
and advancement, the white man came, and the Iroquois were no 
longer the Ongwe Honwee of the land. The white man gave them 
arms and clothing for their furs and tendered them letters and 
religion ; but they also brought them rum, won lands from them by 
fraud or force, made them dependents and kept them occupied in 
war. Ah me ! it was cruel in Great Britain and France to foster 
their red children's appetite for war. Their protection was such " as 
vultures give to lambs, covering and devouring them." 


I recall with pride the fact that at the outbreak of the Revolution 
and of the war of 1812 efforts of this state and of the confederated 
states were employed to bind the red men to neutrality. But, alas ! 
they were armed and incited to war by Great Britain ; and yet Great 
Britain, when she recognized our independence, forgot her Indian 
allies within our boundaries and made no provision for their safety. 
Red Jacket said, " When you Americans and the king made peace 
he did not mention us and showed us no compassion, notwithstanding 
all he had said to us and all we had suffered. This has been the 
occasion of great sorrow and loss to us, the Five Nations. When 
you and he settled the peace between you two great nations he never 
asked us for a delegation to attend to our interests." So, in the long 
state of bitter feeling between our country and Great Britain, during 
her retention of our frontier posts, she egged the Indians on to war 
with us, in the hope of their making the Ohio a part of our northern 
boundary. Then, and long before that time, some of the Indian 
tribes realized that, to their own great loss and danger, Great Britain, 
in her selfish policy, was bribing them to fight battles not their own. 
Heckewelder was right in his high estimate of the shrewdness and 
eloquence of the speech of Captain Pipe, the Delaware, in Decem- 
ber, 1801, to the British commandant at Detroit, at whose instance 
he had made war against the Long Knives. He told him expressly 
that the whites had got up a war among themselves and ought them- 
selves to wage it; that the British had compelled their red children 
to take up the hatchet and join in a war for which they had no cause 
or inclination, and intimated his conviction that the British would 
make peace and throw their then useless tools aside. 

But to return to the Iroquois. In their early and palmy state they 
command our admiration, even as they now, when fallen so far below 
it, command our sympathy and love. They were, indeed, fierce and 
cruel, but not more so than the fathers and progenitors of the 
European nations were even after they had attained iron and had 
letters. Recall the rude, barbarian hordes who created primal Greece 
and Rome; think of the death of Regulus by Carthaginian hands; 
of the swarms from the Scandinavian hive that peopled Gaul and 
revivified ail Europe; of man's inhumanity to man in all times and 
all nations; and can we render judgment of peculiar condemnation 
against the Iroquois because they warred by ambush and surprise, 
scalped those who fell beneath their hatchet and tortured their 
prisoners ? In the white man's wars against them he, too, not in- 


frequently tore the scalp from the head of his red enemy and tricked 
it under his belt. In August, 1778, tribes Charles Smith, a trouble- 
some emissary of the enemy, was shot by a party of nffeme» belong- 
ing to the force of Col. William Butler, in comma id 
they brought in his scalp and it was sent to Gen. Stark, the I 
commandant at Albany. (Clinton Papers, 1639 and 1650.) We i I 
not wholly humanize the Indians who were our friends in the war 
of the Revolution. The Oneidas and Tuscaroras, in September 
1778, in giving to Major Cochran, then - . : - - 

an account of their descent upon Butternuts ar. 

to him some prisoners and declared that they did not take scalps. 
But when, in November, 1781, Major Ross's command had been 
defeated by Col. WTIIett near Johnstown, awd 1 I - -. ith da- 

perate haste into the wilderness, an Oneida 3lew the iafiiiMiij Walter 
Butler, at a ford of the West Canada Creek, and fr^ tprd mm. Yew 
will remember, too, that at the council of 1790, at Tioga Point when 
Thomas Morris was adopted by the ; 1 , :~ ier Red 

original name of Otetiani. or Always Ready, a foolish Oneida, 13 he 
struck the post during the ceremcvV- ;" - 
the number of scalps his nation had taken in the war of die 
tion, and so provoked : z vtnecas to boast of : - - er 

of the Oneidas they had taken, and to call them cowan: 
Life of Red Jacket pp. 41-44.) 

But it behooves us to remember that the Iroquois woe hired to 
war against us i~.i : \ _n led on to the perpetration ; 
by white men ; and that apart from war, to which they were loo 
often impelled, as were the warlike nations of an -.ere am- 

bition and the lust of fame, they were generous and t»rmai^ Their 
councils were models of decorous and dignified debate. Their 
policy was far- . : - ig leaded :o the assertion of wide- retc zing 

peace. The; : colonic-: rad — ibie 

and . : ' -jte from die conque ; n ceased with cow- 

quest an 1 . :. -.- . :.:.--- 

Of tlieir eloquence I h : something, bwft I must add that 

Logi- :nie£ whose celebrated speech was deciarec 

Jefferson to be unex xQed 

theses or Cicero, or of any European orator, a jgh 

he I . m his nation, Eat l i laMc a dcaf eloquence am 

com . . -. ~ 

and : - ' T 


calls the Grangula, to M. de la Barre, at the Bay of Famine, in 
August, 1684! How proud and defiant was his declaration, as the 
mouthpiece of the Five Nations, and especially of the Senecas, to 
the French governor who came complaining of the Senecas and 
threatening war! "We have conducted the English to our lakes in 
order to trade with the Outawas and the Hurons, just as the Algon- 
quins conducted the French to our Five Cantons, in order to carry 
on a commerce which the English claimed as their right. We are 
born freemen, and have no dependence either upon the Onontio or 
the Corlaer. We have power to go where we please, to conduct 
whom we will to the places we resort to, and to buy and sell where 
we think fit. If your allies are your slaves or children you may 
treat them as such, and rob them of the liberty of entertaining any 
nation but your own." 1 What pathos there is in the memorial of 
Cornplanter, Halftown and Big Tree, of December 2, 1790, addressed 
to Washington and complaining of the purchases of Phelps and 
Livingston as fraudulent : " Father ! you have said that we are in 
your hand and that, by closing it, you can crush us. Are you deter- 
mined to crush us ? If you are, tell us so, that those of our nation 
who have become your children and have determined to die so may 
know what to do. In this case, one chief has said he would ask you 
to put him out of pain. Another, who will not think of dying by 
the hand of his father or of his brother, has said he will retire to the 
Chautauqua, eat of the fatal root, and sleep with his fathers in 
peace. Before you determine on a measure so unjust, look up to 
God, who made us as well as you ! " (Clinton MSS., 6,077.) How 
grand, how touching ! And yet, O Senecas ! you have permitted the 
names of these two chiefs, so worthy of remembrance, to perish. 

The Iroquois appreciated the worth of woman and gave her a 
high place in their counsels. In 1789, at Albany, Good Peter, in 
his speech for the Cayugas and Senecas to the governor and the 
Commissioners of Indian Affairs, said, " Our ancestors considered it 

1 The Grangula who delivered this speech was, most probably, the Hotrehouati, 
or Hateouati. of de la Barre (IX Col. Doc, 243, 236), whose speech, as recorded 
in de la Barre's return of his proceedings to his sovereign (IX Col. Doc. 237) is 
very different from the one recorded by La Hontan, and was made up, I think, to 
salve the mortification of the French commandant and gratify his king. Mr. Kryant 
informs me that Grangula was a title applied to a great chief and. consequently, 
Dr. C. Callaghan (IX Col. Doc, 243) was mistaken in his assertion that it was 
merely the Latinizatinn by La Hontan of Grand,' Gtieuh, the name given by the 
French to Outreouati. (See Appendix, title Garangula.) 

35 1748552 

a great transgression to reject the counsel of their women, particu- 
larly of the governesses. Our ancestors considered them mistresses 
of the soil. Our ancestors said, ' Who bring us forth ? Who culti- 
vate our lands? Who kindle our fires and boil our pots but the 
women. * * The women say, let not the traditions of the fathers 
with respect to women be disregarded; let them not be despised; 
God is their maker.' * * The female governesses beg leave to 
speak with that freedom allowable to women and agreeable to the 
spirit of our ancestors. They exhort the great chief to put forth his 
strength and preserve their peace, for they are the life of the nation." 
And when the Senecas at Big Tree, in 1797, refused to negotiate with 
Thomas Morris, and Red Jacket, with undue haste, had declared 
the council fire covered up, the women and the warriors interposed 
and consummated a treaty. Its women are, indeed, the life of every 
aggregation of mankind, and the true gauge of the worth and dignity 
of every tribe and nation of the earth is the standing and the influ- 
ence of its women. Maltreatment and contempt may degrade their 
women ; women grow pure and loving through reasonable reverence 
and so strengthen and elevate the men. 

In general, the men of the Five Nations were, and still are, noble 
in person, and the young men especially were and are classical in 
form and feature. Hence it was that when West, the great American 
painter, first saw the Apollo Belvidere he exclaimed : " How like a 
young Mohawk warrior ! " I can readily accept the tradition that 
their women, like the women of all peoples, by far excelled the men 
in grace and beauty, because in the present I perceive its truth. 
Certainly, a young Iroquois maiden of uncontaminated blood, just 
entered upon womanhood, unworn by harsh and unbefitting labor, 
pure as unclouded heaven, and with the words of her nation drop- 
ping from her tongue like the low tinklings of a harp, is beautiful 

Very many of the Iroquois, women as well as men, had exhibited 
intellectual power and broad philanthropy, but, if legends be true, 
the name of none of them was held in reverence by all the Indians 
as was that of Tamanund. But all aboriginal America, in my humble 
judgment, does not furnish to us a name so worthy of undying rev- 
erence as that of Hiawatha, the statesman and lover of peace, who 
framed the League of the Five Nations, secured its adoption and 
started the confederacy on its glorious career. 

But I must cease my vain attempts to paint these nations as they 


were in the olden time, and turn abruptly to the present. We are 
your brothers, O Iroquois, and it is in sorrow and not in exultation, 
and solely with a hope of arousing you to righteous and effectual 
effort to regain the prosperity of the past, that I ask you to look 
your present condition and prospects in the face. And now, Iroquois 
brothers of Canada, I beg you to take notice that this statement and 
all the remarks that may follow it are addressed to the Iroquois 
within this state. You are under a different government, and I am 
glad in the belief that your condition is much happier than theirs. 
But you and they are one, and we Americans are brothers and 
friends of both. 

The Iroquois can no longer arrogate to themselves the title of 
Ongwe Honwee. In 1811 De Witt Clinton wrote thus : "The Six 
Nations have lost their high character and standing. * * Their 
old men who witnessed the former glory and prosperity of their 
country, and who have heard from the mouths of their ancestors the 
heroic achievements of their countrymen, weep like infants when 
they speak of the fallen condition of the nation. They, however, 
derive some consolation from a prophecy of ancient origin and 
universal currency among them, that the man of America will, at 
some future time, regain his ancient ascendancy and expel the man 
of Europe from this Western Hemisphere." At this day such a hope 
is futile. Even the Seneca has lost, I trust, his insane appetite for 
war. The man of Europe covers the continent. The man of 
America is represented by tribes and nations, feeble of themselves 
and relying for protection upon the man of Europe. At the outset 
of the war of the Revolution the Mohawks retired to Canada, and 
the Eastern Door of the Long House was broken down forever. 
After the close of that war the main body of the Cayugas also went 
to Canada. The Onondagas have been reduced to a feeble remnant. 
The Western Door is gone. The Long House has been swept away, 
and there is naught left of it but some poor, dispersed, decaying 
fragments. The broken bands that are left within the state arc 
bereft of all that the Long House covered, save some petty reserva- 
tions. The population of the state in 1794 was about 340,000, and 
that of the United States was about 4,000,000. The population of 
New York four years ago was 5,000,000, and that of the United States 
was 50,000,000. In 1794, when the Treaty of Canandaigua was 
being considered, you spoke of the Council of Thirteen Fires, and 
that Council is now one of Thirty-eight Fires, and eight more arc 


being built. There is no possibility of retrieving the power of the 
Six Nations by war. Never, in the hereafter, can they or any of 
them wage an independent war on their own account. If they go to 
war at all — which may the good God forbid ! — it must be as auxil- 
iaries of the great powers that shelter them. The contracted reser- 
vations yield little or no game. You must till the ground and 
engage in mechanical employments. Some white men are continually 
seeking to prey upon you, and others are constant in your defense. 
You have friends and protectors in great numbers and of great 
apparent power; but, alas! you are dwindling, and it would seem 
that some of your nations must ere long vanish in the mass of white 
men or become utterly extinct. 

I am very glad to believe that the State of New York and the 
United States have always been and are friends of the Iroquois. 
Brothers of the Seneca Nation ! have you forgotten how, in or about 
1784, when you had been persuaded to "execute a deed for your 
whole country * * and had sold the burial-places of your fathers, 
and the bones and ashes of your ancestors, and had not reserved land 
sufficient to lay down your head or kindle a fire upon," the State of 
New York interposed, in vindication of its just dignity, and gave you 
complete relief? Did not De Witt Clinton, the then governor of the 
state, write thus to you in 1820: "Brothers! this state will protect 
you in the full enjoyment of your property. We are strong and will 
shield you from oppression; The Great Spirit looks down on the 
conduct of mankind and will punish us if we permit the remnant 
of the Indian nations which is with us to be injured. We feel for 
you, brothers, and we shall watch over your interests. We know 
that in a future state we shall be called upon to answer for our 
conduct to our fellow-creatures." The state has always felt her 
solemn responsibility and that promise so given for her. The Report 
of the Joint Committee of Four Yearly Meetings of the Friends 
certified thus in 1S47 : "The uniform justice and compassion of 
New York towards the Six Nations who were located on its territory 
presents, in retrospect, one of the most pleasant scenes on the pages 
of our history." It has exerted its power to protect you in the 
possession of your lands and to keep out intruders; to incite you to 
advances in knowledge and to the practices of industry ; it gave you 
a charter, under which, as a distinct people, you exercise all the 
powers of self-government consistent with your condition. The 
Society of Friends have been your constant advisers and benefactors. 


All Christian men, and all wise and conscientious men who have 
been or are your neighbors, have been and are anxious for your 
happiness and safety. Surely you have not forgotten Thomas C. 
Love and Thomas A. Osborne, your warm and judicious friends; 
nor the Rev. Asher Wright, who resided with you so long and worked 
so zealously for your salvation. But, notwithstanding all this active 
friendship and strong protection, the nation has been almost contin- 
ually harassed, and has not made advances that hold forth reasonable 
assurance of future progress. Who can effectually protect you and 
your possessions from sordid and rapacious white men? The laws 
and denunciations of the state and nation are as ineffectual as is the 
brute thunder to deter a pack of wolves from tearing down a deer at 
bay. Nothing but a just sense of your own worth and dignity as 
men, and the grace of the Christian's God, can shield you from the 
temptations which, when triumphant, sink us below the level of the 
beasts that perish. 

Brothers ! The plain and simple truth is this : All this sympathy 
and friendship, and all the aid and protection our governments can 
give you, must be as ineffectual to save you as is a zephyr to uproot 
a sturdy oak, if you do not rouse yourselves to a sense of your 
own worth as men, and your dignity as Iroquois, and resolve to 
protect yourselves. True friendship must say to you, "Awake! 
Arise ! or be forever fallen ! " 

Brothers! Ask yourselves whether you retain your ancestral rev- 
erence for woman, a reverence without which you cannot rise. Your 
territory is very small, your numbers inconsiderable. What hope 
can there be of doing great actions and winning fame on so con- 
tracted a theatre ? Can any one of you, however gifted by nature, 
stay in and devote himself to his little country and win glory in art 
or arms or expanded usefulness? If ambitious, must he not, like 
Donehogawa, your chief sachem, leave you and his petty country in 
order to do such deeds as gave him wide honor and high distinction. 
That honor and distinction which make him a man of mark in the 
United States tends to prove that the Senecas are not degenerate 
nor wanting in native power. 

Brothers ! May I not truly conclude that your lack of ambition 
and despondency spring wholly from your position as a people 
cooped up and confined in an alien and powerful nation of widely 
different institutions, and the sense that upon that nation you are 
dependent; that you lie in the hollow of its hand; that it can close 


it and crush you in an instant, while you cannot have the least effect 
upon it or its fortunes. The high spirit of the men whose remains 
you have this day placed safely in old mother earth would have 
revolted at such a state of things. They would have sought escape 
from it ; and the only escape from it that I can perceive is citizenship. 
Your lineage is illustrious, and if, as I believe, you have inherited its 
intellect and courage, you will arouse yourselves, cast despondency 
aside, and repel the wolves that threaten your existence ; you will 
seek advancement in knowledge, cherish purity of morals and belief, 
and so prove yourselves worthy of and win American citizenship. 
Your country will then be bounded by the great oceans and nearly 
cover a continent. You will have an almost limitless field for the 
exercise of intellect and the exhibition of science, and have fit and 
aburfdant fields for the display of your hereditary eloquence. Can 
you doubt that Hiawatha, or Ototarho, or Joseph Brant, or Red 
Jacket, or Logan, or Cornplanter, or Farmer's Brother would have 
played a grand part in such a field. There is not a living thing, from 
the lordly buffalo to the smallest fly — not a beast, a bird, a fish, a 
reptile, an insect or a worm that does not show forethought and take 
pains to secure the safety and the comfort of its offspring; yea, some 
of the most timid draw courage from love and die in their defense. 
You are invoked, not merely to take care of your own interests, but 
also to secure happiness and honor to your children and your chil- 
dren's children forever. In attaining the dignity of American citi- 
zenship you need not make any substantial sacrifice. You may, and, 
I think, ought to retain your organization as Senecas and hold fast 
to your lands, and be true to the old League of the Iroquois, at least 
as a band of social union. I read, indeed, that the confederation is 
broken, and that the league has perished. If that be true, still there 
is every reason that the remnants of the Six Nations should be 
reunited by the strong bond of their ancient common glory and a 
sense of the closeness of their brotherhood and remain Aquanuschioni 
forever. I am glad to find that the Onondagas and the Mohawks 
keep the compact made when the league was formed. Atotarho, the 
representative of the old emperor of the Five Nations, wears not the 
grim visage and bears not the matted crown of threatening snakes 
that Cusick gave him, but brings with him peace to all and brotherly 
enjoyment ; Hiawatha, too, honors this assembly with his presence, 
and perpetuates also the honored name of David Thomas. 

And now, brothers of the Iroquois, I must express a wish which 


lies close to my heart. I wish that every unpublished and recoverable 
fact of your grand and eventful history should be recovered and 
given to the world. You have no truer friend than he who is the 
Gazing-at-the-Fire of your Senecas and the Bright Sky of your 
Mohawks, and there is not in Buffalo nor, I believe, anywhere a man 
who would be so zealous in searching for the hidden facts of your 
history, and so competent to arrange and annotate and give them to 
the world ; and my heart's desire is that you should encourage him 
to the undertaking and give him your countenance and aid. 

I am an old and weary man, and very few, if any of you, will ever 
see my face again, and I shrink from the pain of parting. But I 
cannot say farewell without again declaring that this final disposition 
by us of the mortal remains of Sagoyewatha and his comrades, sanc- 
tioned and participated in, not only by all the Senecas and by all 
the other Iroquois, is a solemn recognition of our common brother- 
hood. These remains now rest in close companionship, and near 
and around them repose those of Love, Tracy, Fillmore, Hall, good 
Doctor Shelton and many others of their white admirers and friends, 
so that when the Redeemer shall come in glory and the last trump 
sounds, and the earth and the sea shall give up their dead, those 
white men and those red men may assume their spiritual bodies and 
rise together, hymning their gratitude to God, and enter heaven in 
company. Farewell ! 

After musical selections rendered by Wahle's orchestra. 
Chief John Jacket addressed the audience in the Seneca 
language, expressing the thanks of the family and people for 
their generous reception by their white brethren ; and said that 
but for the lateness of the hour several of the Indian chief- 
present would have been pleased to deliver addresses appro- 
priate to the occasion. 

Mr. William C. Bryant then introduced General Ely S. 
Parker, Sachem of the Six Nations, as being a striking example 
of what Christianity and civilization could effect in developing 
the character and genius of the Iroquois. 

General Parker then spoke, without notes, substantially as 
follows : 


Mr. President, Officers and Members of the Buffalo Historical Society, 
and Ladies and Gentlemen of the City of Buffalo : 

I regret the lateness of the hour at which I am called to speak to 
you, as the Indian question is an almost inexhaustible one, and I 
hardly know where to begin or where to end. It is a broad and 
complicated subject, and I can add but little to the very able, inter- 
esting and eloquent address delivered this evening on the Iroquois 
Indians and Red Jacket, the chief and orator. I also realize that 
you are exhausted from your long sitting, hence I promise you to be 
as brief as possible in what I say, a task, however, that I may find 
difficult to accomplish. 

Much has been said and written of the Iroquois people. All agree 
that they once Owned and occupied the whole country now consti- 
tuting the State of New York. They reached from the Hudson on 
the east to the lakes on the west, and claimed much conquered 

I desire only to direct attention to one phase of their character, 
which, in my judgment, has never been brought out with sufficient 
force and clearness, and that is, their fidelity to their obligations and 
the tenacity with which they held to their allegiance when once it 
was placed. More than two hundred and fifty years ago, when the 
Iroquois were in the zenith of their power and glory, the French 
made the mistake of assisting the northern Indians with whom the 
Iroquois were at war. They never forgot or forgave the French for 
the aid they gave their Indian enemies, and the French were never 
afterward able to gain their friendship. About the same time the 
Holland Dutch came up the Hudson, and thougli perhaps they were 
no wiser than their French neighbors they certainly pursued a wiser 
policy by securing the friendship of the Iroquois. The Indians 
remained true to their allegiance until the Dutch were superseded 
by the English, when they also transferred their allegiance to the 
new comers. They remained steadfast to the faith they had given, 
and assisted the English people to put down the rebellion of the 
American colonies against the mother government. The colonies 
succeeded in gaining their independence and establishing a govern- 
ment to their liking, but in the treaty of peace which followed the 
English entirely ignored and forgot their Indian allies, leaving them 
to shift for themselves. A portion of the Iroquois, under Captain 
Brant, followed the fortunes of the English into Canada, where they 


have since been well cared for by the provincial and home govern- 
ments. Those who remained in the United States continued to 
struggle for their homes and the integrity of what they considered 
their ancient and just rights. The aid, however, which they had 
given against the cause of the American Revolution had been so 
strong as to leave an intense burning hostility to them in the minds 
of the American people, and to allay this feeling and to settle for all 
time the question of rights as between the Indians and the whites, 
General Washington was compelled to order an expedition into the 
Indian country of New York to break the Indian power. This 
expedition was under command of General Sullivan. The Indians 
left to themselves and bereft of British aid made Sullivan's success 
an easy one. He drove them from their homes, destroyed and burnt 
their villages, cut down their corn-fields and orchards, leaving the 
poor Indians homeless, houseless and destitute. We have been told 
this evening that the " Long House " of the Iroquois had been 
broken. It was indeed truly broken by Sullivan's invasion. It was 
so completely broken that never again will the " Long House " be 

The Indians sued for peace. They were now at the mercy of 
General Washington and the American people. A peace was granted 
them, and small homes allowed in the vast domains they once claimed 
as absolutely and wholly theirs by the highest title known among 
men, viz., by the gift of God. The mercy of the American people 
granted them the right to occupy and cultivate certain lands until 
some one stronger wanted them. They hold their homes to-day by 
no other title than that of occupancy, although some Indian bands 
have bought and paid for the lands they reside upon the same as 
you, my friends, have bought and paid for the farms you live upon. 
The Indian mind has never to this day been able to comprehend 
how it is that he has been compelled to buy and pay for that which 
has descended to him from time immemorial, and which his ancestors 
had taught him was the gift of the Great Spirit to him and his 
posterity forever. It was an anomaly in civilized law far beyond his 
reasoning powers. 

In the treaty of peace concluded after Sullivan's campaign the 
remnants of the Iroquois transferred their allegiance to the United 
States, and to that allegiance they have remained firm and true to 
this day. They stood side by side with you in the last war with 
Great Britain, in the defense of this frontier, and fought battles 


under the leadership of the able and gallant General Scott. Again, 
the sons of the Iroquois marched shoulder to shoulder with you, 
your fathers, your husbands and your sons in the last great Rebellion 
of the South, and used, with you, their best endeavors to maintain 
the inviolability and integrity of the American constitution, to pre- 
serve unsullied the purity of the American flag, and to wipe out 
forever from every foot of American soil the curse of human slavery. 
Such, in brief, has been their fidelity to their allegiance. 

It was during the troublous times of the American Revolution 
that Red Jacket's'name first appears. He is mentioned as a messen- 
ger, or bearer of dispatches, or runner, for the British. He subse- 
quently appears at the treaty of peace, and at all treaties and councils 
of importance his name is always prominent. He was a devoted 
lover of his people, and he labored hard for the recognition and 
restoration to his people of their ancient rights, but in which he was 
unsuccessful. His political creed did not embrace that peculiar 
doctrine now so strongly believed in, that " to the victors belong the 
spoils." He did not know that the Sullivan campaign had taken 
from his people all the vested rights which God'had given them, and 
when, subsequently, he was made to understand that a pre-emptive 
title hung over the homes of his people he was amazed at the 
audacity of the white man's law which permitted and sanctioned the 
sale and transfer by one person to another of rights never owned and 
of properties never seen. From the bottom of my heart I believe 
that Red Jacket was a true Indian and a most thorough pagan. He 
used all the powers of his eloquence in opposition to the introduction 
of civilization and Christianity among his people. In this, as in 
many other things, he signally failed. So persistent and tenacious 
was he in his hostility to the white man and his ways and methods 
that one of his last requests is said to have been that white men 
should not dig his grave and that white men should not bury him. 
But how forcibly now comes to us the verity and strength of the 
saying that "man proposes, but God disposes." Red Jacket had 
proposed that his remains should lie buried and undisturbed in the 
burial-place of his fathers. Very soon after his death his people 
removed from their old lands to other homes. Red Jacket's grave 
remained unprotected, and ere long was desecrated. Then God put 
it into the hearts of these good men of the BuiTalo Historical Society 
to take charge of his remains, give him a decent burial in a white 
man's graveyard, and over his grave to erect a monument which 


should tell his story to all future generations. We have this day 
witnessed and participated in the culmination of their labors. Red 
Jacket has been honorably reburied with solemn and ancient rites, 
and may his remains rest there in peace until time shall be no more. 
While a silent spectator of the ceremonies to-day, the words of the 
blessed Saviour forcibly presented themselves to my mind, " the 
foxes have holes and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son 
of Man hath not where to lay His head." I applied this saying to 
the Indian race. They have been buffeted from pillar to post. They 
once owned much, but now have hardly anything they can call their 
own. While living they are not let alone — when dead they are not 
left unmolested. 

I thank you for your kind attention, and I now bid you all, and 
each of you, a fair good-night ; may you retire to sweet slumbers 
and pleasant dreams. 

Members of the Buffalo Historical Society : The representatives 
of the Iroquois here present have imposed upon me the pleasing 
duty of returning to you their profound and sincere thanks for the 
honor you have done their people to-day. Mournful memories are 
brought to their minds in the sad ceremonies in which they have 
been both participants and witnesses, but their griefs are all assuaged 
and their tears dried up by your kindness. They will carry back to 
their people nothing but good words of you and yours. They again 
return you thanks and bid you farewell. 

General Parker then exhibited the Red Jacket medal pre- 
sented by order of General Washington, President, in 1792. 
It is of silver, oval in shape, seven inches long by five inches 
broad. The general had dressed it in black and white wam- 
pum. The black indicating mourning and the white peace and 
gladness. In the article in the Buffalo Courier of October 10th, 
describing the occasion, the editor truly says : 

" The production of this medal was important, because stories, 
like that about Red Jacket's bones, have for some time been current 
to the effect that this medal was being exhibited out west years ago. 
Like Red Jacket's bones, however, it has been carefully preserved, 
and there is no doubt whatever of its identity." 

The above concluded the interesting commemorative exer- 
cises of the day. 





THE following is a correct list of the Indian delegates to the 
Red Jacket obsequies, as shown by the register of the Buffalo 
Historical Society : 

William Jones — Tho-na-so-wah. Big Sand. Seneca. 

John Jacket — Sho-gyo-a-ja-ach. Holding up our Earth. Grand- 
son of Red Jacket. Seneca. 

Mary A. J. Jones — Je-on-do-oh. It has put the Tree again into 
the Water. Seneca. 

Abby Jacket — Oh-no-syo-dyno. It has Thrown Away the House. 
Granddaughter of Red Jacket. Seneca. 

Sarah W. Jacket — O-ge-jo-dyno. It has Thrown Away the Corn 
Tassel. Seneca. 

Irene Jones — Gaw-yah-was. It Sifts the Skies. Seneca. 

William Nephew — So-no-jo-wah. The Nephew. Seneca. Grand- 
son of Gov. Blacksnake, alias The Nephew. 

Irene A. Jones — Ga-on-ye-was. It Sifts the Skies. Seneca. 
Daughter of Mrs. Irene Jones. 

Rev. Z. L. Jimeson — Ska-oh-ya-dih. Beyond the Sky. , Seneca. 

Andrew Snow — T&iu-sen-e-doh. Seneca. 

Charles Jones. Youngest son of Capt. Horatio Jones, the 
famous captive. Geneseo, N. Y. 

Chester C. Lay — Ho-do-au-joah. Bearing the Earth. United 
States interpreter Seneca Nation. 

General Ely S. Parker — Do-ne-ho-ga-wa. Open Door. One 
of the leading sachems of the League of the Iroquois. 

Mrs. E. S. Parker. 

Willie Red Jacket Jones — Sho-gyo-a-ja-ach. Holding up our 
Earth. Seneca. 

Isaac T, Parker — Da-jis-sta-ga-na. Seneca. 

John Mt. Pleasant — Dah-gah-yah-dent. Falling Woods. Tus- 

4 6 

Mrs. J. Mt. Pleasant — Ge-goh-sa-seh. Wild Cat. Seneca. 
Mrs. Mary J. Pierce. Widow of the late Maris B. Pierce, a 
chief of the Seneca nation. Seneca. 

Moses Stevenson — Au-o-wah-nay. Broad Path. Seneca. 


Benjamin Carpenter — Des-ka-he. More than Eleven. Cayuga. 

John Frasier — Astaw-en-ser-on-ha. Rattler. Mohawk. 

Joseph Porter — Oron-ya-de-ka. Burning Sky. Oneida. 

Henry Clench — Kan-og-wa-ya. Corn Cob. Oneida. 

Levi Jonathan — Kad-ar-gua-ji. Well Bruised. Onondaga. 

Peter Powless — Sa-de-ka-ri-wa-de. Two Stories Alike. Mohawk. 

Moses Hill — Fyo-giva-wa-ken. Holding Company. Tuscarora. 

John Buck — Sha-na-wa-de. Beyond the Swamp. Onondaga. 

James Jamison — De-yo-no-do-ge?i. Between two Mountains. 

John Hill. Seneca. 

Robert David — Sakoyewatha. Keeper Awake. Cayuga. 

Josiah Hill — Sa-ko-ka-ryes. Cannibal. Tuscarora. Nanticokes, 
now mixed with Tuscaroras. 

Rev. Albert Anthony — She-quack-ni?id. The Lone Pine. 
Delaware. Missionary to Six Nations. A Delaware chief. 

Miss Jessie Osborne — Sa-pa-na. The Lily. Mohawk, and great- 
granddaughter of Capt. Brant, Mohawk. 

Miss Eva H. Johnson — Ka-ra-wa-na. Drifting Canoe. Miss E. 
Pauline Johnson — Ke?i-yen-neen-tha. The Snow Drift. Daughters 
of the late chief, George H. M. Johnson. Residence: Chiefswood, 
Tuscarora, Canada. Mohawk. 

J. T. Gilkison, Brantford, Ont. Superintendent and Commis- 
sioner of the Six Nations Indians, Brantford, Canada. 


From the Commercial Advertiser, August 14, 1884. 



The several committees of the Historical Society who have in 
charge the matters connected with the re-interment of Red Jacket 
and Farmer's Brother, and other Indian chiefs of the Six Nations, in 
Forest Lawn, met on Monday, and various reports of progress were 

Mr. William C. Bryant reported that the trustees of Forest Lawn 
had agreed to give to the society a much finer and more command- 
ing lot than the one donated last spring. 

This generous gift will be duly appreciated by all interested in the 
matter, and yet it is but giving a place of sepulture to the great 
warriors and chiefs of the Iroquois, who owned and governed all the 
great Northwest, as stated in the historical letter of Gov. Seymour 
referred to in this article. The' society advised that arrangements 
be made with the cemetery association to construct the base of the 
monument, so that it may be in readiness to lay the corner-stone. 

Judge Sheldon reported that he had received a letter from Gov. 
Seymour, who was obliged to decline the invitation to deliver an 
oration on account of ill health. The letter is historical and inter- 
esting, and we publish it in full : 

Utica, N. Y., Aug. 9, 18S4. 
Hon. James Sheldon, Buffalo : 

Dear Sir — I am annoyed that your letter written to me about ten days ago was 
not promptly answered. I have been away from Utica to make a visit to friends in 
Cazenovia. During the past two years my health has been so poor that I have 
been confined to my house much of the time. 

I am suffering from a nervous complaint which makes me very weak, and I am 
incapable of mental or physical exertion. 


I am gratified by your invitation to visit Buffalo to take part in the historical 
celebration in October, but I dare not accept it. 

I am glad it is to be held, for it will excite an interest in events which have bec-r. 
neglected in the past. I may be able to contribute in some degree to its success by 
sending to your society a book, published by Hugh Gaines in 1757, in relation to 
the controversy between Great Britain and France, with regard to their claims in 
North America. Incidentally, it throws light upon the influence and power of the 
Six Nations. I think the book is rare, as I know but another copy, which is in the 
state library, at Albany. 

I will also send to you a map made by the British ordnance department about 
1720, which, among other things, lays down or defines the bounds of the conquests 
of the Iroquois. The southern line runs through the center of the colony of North 
Carolina, westward to the Mississippi River, thence along that river and the course 
of the Illinois to the southern end of Lake Michigan, thence through the center of 
that lake to a point in Canada north of the great lakes, thence eastward to the 
Atlantic. The book and this map show that the claim of the English to the 
territory west of Rome in this state was based on the assertion that the Iroquois 
had become their subjects, and had brought with them their jurisdiction over the 
country they had conquered. I do not think it is generally understood tha - . 
was the basis of the British claim to the Northwest. The French did not deny the 
statement with regard to the conquest and power of the Iroquois, but they said in 
answer to the claim that those Indians had become subjected to the British crown 
that no Englishman would dare to tell them that they were subjects, for if they did 
so they would peril their lives. I wish I could see you or some member of the 
society at my home, which is at a little distance out of the limits of Utica. 

I have a number of old documents which might be of use to those who will take 
part in your celebration. I will send the book and map to you by express. 

I am sorry that I cannot go to Buffalo on the occasion, for I feel a deep interest 
in its purposes. I trust the day has come when the people of New York will look 
up and make a record of facts bearing upon its history. 

I may be able to write you again to call your attention to other things which may 
bear upon the purposes of the celebration. . 

I am truly yours, 


The committee discussed informally the program of the various 
exercises, which substantially will be as follows : 

The proceedings at Forest Lawn will occur in the forenoon — con- 
sisting of funeral ceremonies by the representatives of the Six 
Nations; the interment ; a poem suitable for the occasion; and an 
address by Wm. C. Bryant, Esq., of this city, and the laying of the 

In the evening it is proposed to have a free meeting at Music Hall, 
at which addresses will be made and other appropriate exercises 
take place. 


No doubt the occasion will be one of marked historical interest 
and attract to our city many of the most learned and distinguished 
of our citizens. The society is receiving from historical societies 
assurance of sympathy, and many of the distinguished archaeologists 
of the country are deeply interested. 

As usual, in all matters of public good, our citizens have responded 
liberally with subscriptions, so that the Historical Society are confi- 
dent that the event will confer a new dignity upon our city. 


No. I, Ga-nontja-gie, Destroy-Town. 

" 2, Gui-en-gwah-toh. . The Young King 
r< 3, Sa-go-ye-w-at-ha, . . Red Jacket. 
" 4. Ga-ok-do-wau-na, . Captain Pollard. 

" 5, Jish-ja-ga, Little Billy. 

" 6, Ha-no-ja-cya Tall Peter. 

"' 7, 8. & 9. Three unknown Braves in 
each grave. t 

* Catherine, wife of Capt. Pollard 
and his little grand child are bur.icd 
with him, in No. 4 

a a a a a Five Elvis. 

Forest Lawn 




New York. 


From the Buffalo Daily Courier, October 9, 1884. 



But, ah ! What once has been shall be no more. 
The groaning earth in travail and in pain 
Brings forth its races, but does not restore, 
And the dead nations never rise again. 

The re-interment of the remains of Red Jacket and other chiefs 
of the Senecas, which takes place at Forest Lawn to-day, makes this 
a veritable red letter day in the history of the red man. At ten 
o'clock, a. m., the funeral cortege will form at the Western Savings 
Bank, corner of Main and Court streets, where for more than five 
years the bones of Red Jacket have lain in a vault awaiting the 
ceremonies of to-day. Six hearses will convey to Forest Lawn the 
oak caskets containing the mortal remains of Red Jacket, Little 
Billy, Destroy Town, Tall Peter, Young King and Captain Pollard. 
There will be about sixty carriages for the mourners, and street cars 
will also run for the accommodation of those desiring to visit the 
graves, which are located near the main entrance to the cemetery on 
Delaware avenue. At the grave, prayer will be offered by Rev. Z. 
L. Jemison, an Indian native minister, to be followed by an address 
by William C. Bryant, and, probably, other addresses by the Indian 
chiefs of the Senecas who are expected to be present, wearing the 
dress and arms of their tribe. A funeral dirge by an Indian choir 
will be a feature of the proceedings. In the evening, at Music Hall, 
the commemorative exercises will be free to the public. The prin- 
cipal oration on that occasion will be by the Hon. George W. 
Clinton, and. it is expected that General Ely S. Parker, Judge 
Sheldon and prominent Indians will take part in the proceedings. 


Upwards of fifty Indians belonging to the Six Nations arrived in 
Buffalo yesterday and are now the guests of members of the Buffalo 
Historical Society and their friends. Mr. Bryant, along with the 
members of the committee on reception, viz., the Hon. Philip 
Becker, General John C. Graves and William K. Allen, waited upon 
the distinguished strangers who are the lineal descendants of the 
ancient lords of the soil, and saw that they were duly accommo- 
dated at various hotels and elsewhere. Most of the delegation who 
have arrived so far wear the dress of the white man, and but for 
their unmistakable complexion and broad features might be looked 
upon as ordinary members of the farming class. Indeed most of 
them are tillers of the soil, and some have in this way settled down 
to a comfortable and even profitable means of livelihood. Only a 
few of those seen here yesterday exhibit the dress of a native. 

After partaking of refreshments the party proceeded to the rooms 
of the Historical Society, where the preliminaries were talked over 
in the Indian language and also in English. Mr. Bryant, who, by 
the way, is a Seneca by adoption, extended to his red brethren a 
cordial welcome and explained to them the nature of the ceremonials 
which were intended to commemorate and perpetuate the eloquence 
and oratory of the Six Nations. The bones of six of their departed 
leaders lay in the caskets before them, including those of Red 
Jacket. It was explained that pall-bearers would have to be selected 
from the representatives of the several nations, and it was intended 
that the Indians should commemorate the event in their native 
tongue by the singing of a dirge and by addresses which would 
afterward be translated and published. They were particularly 
informed that they were at liberty to celebrate their illustrious dead 
in their own way, with such assistance from the white man as they 
might be able to render. General Ely S. Parker, who during the 
war was secretary on General Grant's staff, was also present and 
addressed his brethren. General Parker is well known as an 
authority on Indian matters. His speech in the Indian tongue 
seemed to be highly appreciated by the Indians present. He fully 
explained the object of that great gathering of sachems and chiefs, 
the like of which would probably never again be witnessed in their 


From the Buffalo Express of October 7, 1884. 





Yesterday afternoon the Librarian of the Buffalo Historical 
Society was busy mailing invitations to the ceremony attending the 
burial of Red Jacket and contemporary chiefs, to take place at 
Forest Lawn Cemetery next Thursday. Among the invited guests 
are President Arthur, Governor Cleveland, and the Hon. George 
Bancroft, the historian ; Mayor Scoville, the Common Council, City 
Clerk Burns and other prominent city officials and citizens ; the 
presidents of all historical societies in the United States and Canada; 
Professor D. Wilson, the eminent English ethnologist, now of Toronto 
University, Ont. ; the Hon. Horatio Seymour of Utica, and the 
Hon. Judge George VV. Clinton of Albany, who will deliver the 
address; Mrs. Harriet Maxwell Converse of New York, whose 
husband was a noted Indian teacher and historian ; Gen. .Ely S. 
Parker of New York, the highest chief in the Seneca Nation, 
formerly of General Grant's staff; the Hon. James G. Blaine of 
Augusta, Me., and Mr. W. Furness of Crystal Springs, N. Y. ; Mr. 
G. A. Shaw, editor of the New York Evening Telegrarn, and Lieut. 
Col. J. T. Gilkison, Superintendent and Commissioner of Indians, 
Brantford, Ont. Besides these the presidents and officers of the 
Buffalo Young Men's Christian Association, the Buffalo Society of 
Natural Sciences, the German Young Men's Association, the Youn^ 
Men's Catholic Association, the Fine Arts Academy, and the 
Lutheran Young Men's Association have been invited. 

The Misses Eva and Pauline Johnson, daughters of the late Chief 
George H. M. Johnson of Chiefswood, near Brantford, Ont., will be 


the guests of the family of Judge Sheldon, on Main street. Miss 
Jessie M. Osborne, of Brantford, a great-granddaughter of the cele- 
brated Mohawk Chieftain, Joseph Brant, will be entertained, together 
with Chief John Mountpleasant and wife, of the Tuscarora Nation, 
by the family of William C. Bryant, Esq. These young Indian 
ladies are well educated and accomplished. 

About forty chiefs and sachems are expected as delegates, besides 
the many Indians who will come out of interest and curiosity from 
the Allegany, Tuscarora, and Cattaraugus reservations. They will, 
as far as possible, be dressed in native costume, with ornaments and 
arms. The head chiefs will wear sashes. 

A reporter of the Express talked last evening with William Jones 
of the Snipe Clan of the Senecas. Mr. Jones is an hereditary chief 
of the Six Nations and an interpreter. His father was for many 
years the interpreter for the missionaries. He has a fair education, 
and talked in substance as follows : 

11 The Indians are all very thankful to the white people for the 
interest they take in us, especially at this time, when they wish to 
honor Red Jacket and other chiefs. We wish to thank the officers 
of the Historical Society for their kindness and for the manner in 
which they have guarded Red Jacket's remains. We shall join with 
them gladly in the ceremony. Although we reverence his memory 
we are too poor to build such a monument. John Jacket, a grandson 
of Red Jacket, is my father-in-law. He is very much pleased to see 
such honors paid to his grandfather, and wishes me to thank the 
good white people for him. He will be here Thursday. 

"When we moved away from the old Buffalo Creek Reservation in 
1844 I was fourteen years old. The cemetery which then surrounded 
the Mission Church was well kept and was not sold. It belongs to 
us now. We intended to fence it in, but have never done so. There 
we buried all our chiefs, but for the past thirty years we have used 
the cemeteries at the new reservation, at Cattaraugus, where the 
Methodists and Presbyterians have separate graveyards, and the 
Pagans bury their dead at Newtown, upon the reservation ground. 

"At the old cemetery, where they took up the bones of Destroy 
Town, Twenty Canoes, Little Billy, Tall Peter, and the other chiefs, 
little remains for us. There were about eight acres, but the white 
men have encroached upon it inch by inch. The Germans who 
have settled near it bury their dead there, but they have no right to 
do it. The cemetery is out Seneca street, about four miles from 
Main street." 


Chief Jones went home last night to make further arrangements 
for the coming of the delegates from Cattaraugus. 

In speaking of the removal of the remains, Mr. W. C. Bryant 
said: "We found that the Indians buried their dead much deeper 
than the whites. In some instances we had to dig down beside and 
tunnel under the graves of white people who had not been buried 
more than a year. There are no more chiefs buried at the old 
cemetery that w r e could identify. The bones we have are dry; many 
are much decayed. The remains of Red Jacket will be placed in a 
casket made of polished oak, with silver trimmings. Each of the 
six chiefs will have a like casket and a separate hearse. We have 
engaged seventy-five carriages, but there will be many more in the 

The stage at Music Hall, where the principal exercises will be 
held, will be appropriately ornamented, under the supervision of 
Miss Grace Sheldon, with palms and flowering plants from the 
conservatory of Judge Sheldon. 

A meeting of the society was held last evening at the office of W. 
C. Bryant, Esq. Eight officers were present. In the several reports 
made it w r as learned that nine bodies of unknown chiefs have been 
buried on the Red Jacket lot during the past week ; that the grave 
of Red Jacket will be of cement; that after the remains are placed 
in it an air-tight, impenetrable cement top will be made, leaving the 
bones as secure as though in a vault, and that the bearers for each 
casket 'will be chosen, two from each of the Six Nations. The 
finance committee expect to raise $2,500. Already $1,800 have been 
collected for the ceremony and the monument fund. The delegates 
from Canada will arrive at 12.30 p. m. to-morrow; the Indians from 
Versailles at 11.30 a. m. They will be met at the trains by com- 
mittees and escorted to hotels. Police will be detailed for special 
duty at the rooms of the Historical Society, at Music Hall, and at 
the cemetery. Mr. C. W. Miller,, who donates the use of six hearses 
and five hacks, and volunteers to supply the vehicles needed, was 
present by invitation last evening. He was made a member of the 
general committee. So was Mr. H. D. Farwell, the undertaker, who 
will be master of ceremonies. 

The funeral cortege will move at 10 a. m. sharp, on Thursday, 
from the corner of Court and Main streets. At Forest Lawn all 
necessary arrangements have been made. The public is cordially 
invited to attend the exercises at Music Hall and at Forest Lawn. 
Both will be free. It is hoped that there will be a large attendance. 


From the Buffalo fopfff, October 8, 1884. 


In the rooms of the Buffalo WhUirical Society in front of the 
president's chair, six caskets stand. '*'&** bold the remains of Red 
Jacket, the great orator of the [io.|Hoih, and Destroy Town, Tall 
Peter, Captain Pollard, who Led ill" massacre of Wyoming, Young 
Chief, and Twenty Canoes, his , mil. 1. .penary chiefs of the Seneca 
Nation. They are placed in tin" ignition in which they wiil be 
buried. The caskets are of polish" il ••• lk with silver trimmings, and 
without glass fronts/ All that nnuiit of these famous sachems are 
bones— dry, decayed and broken. I'an h skull is intact, and on that 
of Tall Peter some of the hair mwin«< The bones of Red Jacket 
were transferred to the casket Monthly evening from the box which 
has held them in the vault of ll>« Western Savings Bank for six 
years. Mr. H. D. Farwell, who |»n?i kept the remains of the five 
other chiefs at his undertaking 1 ••••'»»•• on Pearl street, Councilor 
W. C. Bryant and Librarian G. il H'ouim o( the Historical Society, 
made the removal. On the skull ol Util Jacket was found some of 
the plaster of Paris used by a phiem<U^ist fifty years ago in an 
unsuccessful effort to take a cast ol llu* cranium. 

All necessary preparations haw U >n made for the ceremonies at 
the grave and at Music Hall. ivK-^iions of Indians will arrive 
to-day. They will be quartered \\ different hotels until Friday 




Wm. P. Letchworth, 
Wm. C. Bryant, 
Jonathan Scoville, 
S. S. Jewett, 
Geo. Howard, 
M. P. Bush, 
Philip Becker, 

D. P. Rumsey, 

W. H. H. Newman, 
John C. Graves, 
S. M. Clement, 
J. M. Richmond, 
S. V. Ryan, 

B. C. Rumsey, 
Gibson T. Williams, 
James M. Smith, 

E. L. Stevenson, 
Alonzo Richmond, 

F. H. Root, 

Adam, Meldrum & Ander- 
W. D. Fobes, 
H. D. Taylor, 
R. K. No'ye, 
Chas. D. Marshall, 
Franklin D. Locke, 
Taylor & Crate, 
Howard Iron Works, 
Warren Bryant, 
Pascal P. Pratt, 
D. K. Morse, 
H. G. Nolton, 

C. W. M ' Cune, 

Jno. T. Hudson, 

Wm. B. Flint, 

A. J. Wheeler, 

J. P. Dudley, 

J. C. Forbush, 

Wm. H. Walker, 

C. B. Wheeler, 

H. W. Box, , 

Thos. B. French, 

Chas. A. Gould, 

Jno. R. Linnen, 

Geo. B. Hayes, 

Gowans & Stover, 

E. D. Dart, 

C. J. Hamlin, 

Geo. R. Potter, 

Brown, Merritt & Brown, 

L. M. Brock, . 

C. G. Fox, 
Jno. Lyth, 

W. S. O'Brian, 

D. N. Lock wood, 

E. D. Tuthill & Son, 

C. B. Armstrong & Co., 

D. H. McMillan, 
J. C. Barnes, 

E. S. Dann, 
Wm. S. Tweedy, 

J. B. Stafford & Bro., 
Ansley Wilcox, 
Altman & Co., 
Sibley & Holmwood, 
Sidney Shepard & Co., 

W. P. Burns, 

W. A. Bird, 

Geo. J. Sicard, 

H. Hellriegel, 

R. Stafford, 

R. Keating, 

James Sheldon, 

Wm. Hodge, 

Geo. Wadsworth, 

B. H. Williams, 

Truman C. White, 

Porter Norton, 

J. C. Fullerton, 

Chas. A. Sweet, 

W. S. Bissell, 

Joel Wheeler, 

W. L. White, 

R. P. Wilson, 

Elias S. Hawley, ' 

L. & I. J. White, 

J. N. Scatcherd, 

B. D. Rogers, 

O. A. Trevallee, 

L. S. Oatman, 

S. Hume, 

Geo. W. Tifft, Sons & Co. 

H. R. Howland, 

J. E. Barnard, 

Zink & Hatch, 

H. T. Appleby, 

J. P. Gething, 

Brown & Friend, 

O. C. Hoyt, 


E. L. Hedstrom, 

Geo. Urban, 

Estate of Wm. H. Greene, 

R. V. Pierce, 

Jacob Stern, 

Matthew McComb, 

John M. Bedford, 

John Wilkeson, 

E. ?. Beals, 

J. C. Jewett & Son, 

Erie Preserving Co., 

G. B. Rich, 

E. T. Smith, 

C. F. Bingham, 

Goodyear Rubber Co., 

W. H. Peabody, 

J. N! Adam & Co., 

Fairbanks Co., 

John Esser, 

J. S. Lytle, 

S. G. Le Valley, 

H. L. Meech, 

M. Kingsley, 

John H. Cowing, 

Denton & Cottier, 

Chas. Beckwith, 

Thos. Cary, 

E. H. Hutchinson, 

F. M. Loomis, 

Geo. G. Barnum, 

Young, Lockwood & Co. 

Sherman S. Rogers, 

Humburch & Hodge, 

Geo. H. Bryant, 

J. C. Nagel, 

Alex. Brush, 

Albert Haight, 

Geo. W. Townsend, 

Isaac Geiershofer, 

M. M. Drake, 

E. H. Movius, 

H. F. Allen, 

N. Hall, 

Weed & Co., 

W. Laverack, 

Campbell & Porter, 

O. W. Clark, 

Frank C. Bolt, ' 

H. H. Koch, 

D. E. Morgan, 

P. Paul & Bro., 

Ulbrich & Kingsley, 

Ball & Levy, 

W. W. Hammond, 

G. L. Lewis, 

J. G. Milburn, 

J. E. Ewell, 

Wm. F. Rogers, 

Dahlman, Spiegel & Weil, 

O. O. Cottle, 

Geo. F. Christ, 

Otto Besser, 

John P. Diehl, 

Wm. K. Allen, 

Merritt Brooks, 

Geo. B. Matthews, 

C. F. Sternberg, 

Worthington & Sill, 

Stringer & Cady, 

J. H. Carmichael, 

R. F. Schelling, 

E. W. Hatch, 

Garson, Kerngood Sc Co., 

Moses Smith, 

O. J. Eggert, 

A. W. Hickman, 

M. Nellany, 

N. Moersfelder, 

Irlbacker & Davis, 

H. A. Menker, 

John Hauenstein, 

Chas. W. Miller, 

H. D. Farwell, 

John Feist, 

Gilbert Brady, 

Geo. W. Maltby, 

Orin P. Ramsdell. 



For the Year 1884. 





Recording Secretary, 


Librarian, Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer 




Rev. A..T. CHESTER, D. D. 




The following letter from Col. J. T. Gilkison, Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs at Brantford, Ontario, explains the formal 
action taken by the Six Nations in Council, October 14, 1884. 
concerning their reception and the ceremonies of October 9, 
1884, at Buffalo. 

It is a memorable fact to relate that the council of the 
sachems, chiefs and warriors of the Six Nations, held at the 
rooms of the Buffalo Historical Society on the eighth of Octo- 
ber, 1884, and which is described in this book, was the first 
general council of the united Iroquois which has been held 
since the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, and the con- 
sequent disruption of the League. When this gathering and 
council was first, proposed the Canadian Iroquois refused to 
unite with their estranged brothers who lived in the State of 
New York. A few moments' conference, however, and a few 
bursts of Indian eloquence, melted all their hearts into a feel- 
ing of common sympathy, and the council . proceeded with 
kindly and fraternal feeling. 

Indian Office, Brantford, Ont., Oct. 15, 1SS4. 

Sir : By request of the Six Nations Indians in Council yesterday 
I have the honour to transmit to you the accompanying extract of 
minutes, which I will thank you to lay before the Buffalo Historical 
Society. In doing which, permit me to add, I cordially concur with 
the sentiments of the Council. 

The compliment paid and kindness extended to the delegates o\ 
the Six Nations will ever be remembered by them, your reception 
having far exceeded their expectations. 


For myself I have to express my high sense of the consideration 
shown my Indian people by you and the gentlemen associated with 
you, and for the courtesy and hospitality extended to me personally. 
I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Visiting Superintendent and Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 


The Six Nations in Council, 
October 14, 1884. 

Present — The Visiting Superintendent, Interpreter and twenty-nine Chiefs. 

The chiefs having deliberated upon and discussed the report of their delegates 
attending the recent ceremonies in the City of Buffalo, the Speaker of the Council 
rose and, addressing the superintendent, said : 

On the arrival of their delegates in Buffalo, on Wednesday last, they had the 
honour of being received by a deputation of gentlemen, conducted to carriages and 
conveyed to a hotel, where they were entertained in the most hospitable manner, 
made to feel at home among friends, not as strangers. They were requested on the 
same day to meet their brethren resident in the State of New York, when, being 
assembled, they were invited to consult and arrange for Indian ceremonies attending 
the re-inteiment of the remains of Red Jacket and his warriors upon the following 

The delegates were astonished and gratified with the grand and imposing 
procession and other proceedings, and felt proud in being chosen to assist on so 
solemn and memorable occasion. This Council acknowledge the honour conferred 
upon the illustrious dead of their race, and feel the red man has received a recog- 
nition hitherto unsurpassed, if not unprecedented, which will not be forgotten, but 
be a lasting record in the hearts of the Indians and in succeeding generations. 

The Council desire to express its warm and grateful thanks to the gentlemen 
of the Buffalo Historical Society for the great attention and consideration shown 
their delegates, and for generosity, which contributed so much to their convenience 
and comfort. 

The Council express the wish that the superintendent will be pleased to transmit 
a copy of these minutes to Mr. W. C. Bryant, for the information of the Buffalo 
Historical Society. 


From the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser. 


The famous soldier and Indian chief, Gen. Ely S. Parker, who 
was chief of staff to Gen. Grant during the war, and wrote out the 
terms of Lee's capitulation, recently sent the following letter to Mr. 
William C. Bryant, of the Buffalo Historical Society : 

No. 300 Mulberry Street, New York, May 3, 1884. 

W. C. Bryant, Esq., Buffalo, N. Y. : 

Dear Sir — Yours of the 25th nit. was duly received. I am very much obliged 
to Mr. Marshall for mentioning to you the circumstance of my having written him. 
on the subject of the re-interment of Red Jacket's remains. My principal object 
was to obtain an assurance of the genuineness of the remains. This I did because 
I was informed many years ago that Red Jacket's grave had been surreptitiously 
opened and the bones taken therefrom into the City of Buffalo, where some few 
Indians, under the leadership of Daniel Two Guns, a Seneca chief, recovered them 
a few hours after they were taken. They were never re-interred, but were securely 
boxed up and secreted, first in one Indian's house and then in another. At length 
I saw by the papers that they were now lodged in the vault of some bank in 
Buffalo. I wished only to be satisfied that the remains which the Buffalo Historical 
Society proposed to re-inter were really those of the celebrated chief Red Jacket. 
That was all. Whatever views I may have entertained respecting this scheme, 
which is not new, is now of no consequence, for your letter advises me that the 
subject has been fully discussed with the survivors of the families of the departed 
chiefs, and also of the Council of the Seneca Nation, who have all assented to the 
project of re-interment and to the site selected. 

I am, with respect, yours, etc.. 



Mr. Bryant sent to the general the following reply, which will be 
found of great interest, and may be considered the first authoritative 
statement of the matter ever made : 

Buffalo, June 25, 1884. 
Gen. Ely S. Parker: 

Dear Sir — In 1852, Red Jacket's remains reposed in the old Mission Cemetery 
at East Buffalo, surrounded by those of Young King, Capt. Pollard, Destroy Town, 
Little Billy, Mary Jemison, and others, renowned in the later history of the Senecas. 
His grave was marked by a marble slab, erected by the eminent comedian, Henry 
Placide, but which had been chipped away to half of its original proportions by 
relic hunters and other vandals. The cemetery was the pasture ground for vagrant 
cattle, and was in a scandalous state of dilapidation and neglect. The legal title to 
the grounds was and still is in the possession of the Ogden Land Company, although 
at the time of the last treaty the Indians were led to believe that the cemetery and 
church grounds were excluded from its operation. At the time mentioned (1852), 
George Copway, the well-known Ojibwa lecturer, delivered two or more lectures in 
Buffalo, in the course of which he called attention to Red Jacket's neglected grave 
and agitated the subject of the removal of his dust to a more secure place and the 
erection of a suitable monument. A prominent business man, the late Wheeler 
Hotchkiss, who lived adjoining the cemetery, became deeply interested in the 
project, and he, together with Copway, assisted by an undertaker named Farwell, 
exhumed the remains and placed them in a new coffin, which was deposited with 
the bones in the cellar of Hotchkiss' residence. 

There were a few Senecas still living on the Buffalo Creek Reservation, among 
them Moses Stevenson, Thomas Jemison, Daniel Two Guns, and others. They 
discovered that the old chiefs grave, had been violated almost simultaneously with 
its accomplishment. Stevenson, Two Guns, and a party of excited sympathizers 
among the whites, hastily gathered together and repaired to Hotchkiss' residence, 
where they demanded that the remains should be given up to them. The request 
was complied with and the bones were taken to Cattaraugus and placed in the 
custody of Ruth Stevenson, the favorite step-daughter of Red Jacket, and a most 
worthy woman. Ruth was the wife of James Stevenson, brother of Moses. Their 
father was a cotemporary of Red Jacket and a distinguished chief. She was a 
sister of Daniel Two Guns. Her father, a renowned warrior and chief, fell at the 
battle of Chippewa, an ally of the United States. 

When the demand was made by the excited multitude Hotchkiss manifested 
considerable perturbation at the menacing attitude of the crowd. He turned to 
Farwell and, indicating the place of deposit of the remains, requested that Farwell 
should descend into the cellar and bring up the coffin or box, which, by the way, 
was made of red cedar and about four feet in length. 

Ruth preserved the remains in her cabin for some years and finally buried them, 
but resolutely concealed from every living person any knowledge of the place of 
sepulture. Her husband was then dead and she was a childless, lone widow. As 
she became advanced in years it grew to be a source of anxiety to her what dispo- 
sition should finally be made cf these sacred relics. She consulted the Rev. Asher 
Wright and his wife on the subject, and concluded at length to deliver them over to 

6 4 ■ 

the Buffalo Historical Society, which, with the approval of the Seneca Council, had 
undertaken to provide a permanent resting-place for the bones of the old chief and 
his compatriots. 

I do not believe that there is any ground for doubting the identity of the remains, 
and I think Hotchkiss and his confederates should be acquitted of any intention to 
do wrong. It was an impulsive and ill-advised act on their part. The few 
articles buried with the body were found intact. The skull is in excellent preserva- 
tion and is unmistakably that of Red Jacket. Eminent surgeons, who have exam- 
ined it and compared it with the best portraits of Red Jacket, attest to its 

The Rev. Asher Wright was a faithful missionary among the Senecas for nearly 
half a century. 

There was no opportunity afforded Hotchkiss and his companions to fraudu- 
lently substitute another skeleton, had they been so disposed. I knew Hotchkiss 
well and have his written statement of the facts. Farwell, who still lives, and is a 
very reputable man, says that when the remains were surrendered to the Indians 
the skull had (as it has now) clinging to it in places a thin crust of plaster of Paris, 
showing that an attempt had been made to take a cast of it, which probably was 
arrested by the irruption of Two Guns and his band. 

I have dictated the foregoing because on re-perusal of your esteemed letter I 
discovered I had not met the question which was in your mind when you wrote 
Mr. Marshall, and I greatly fear that I have wearied you by reciting details with 
which you were already familiar. 

The old Mission Cemetery, I grieve to say, has been invaded by white foreigners, 
who are burying their dead there with a stolid indifference to every sentiment of 
justice or humanity. Yours very respectfully, 


General Parker, in acknowledgment of the last communication, 
said that he had never entertained a doubt as to the identity of the 
remains, but was curious to know how the Indians had been induced 
to surrender them to the possession of the whites. 


This estimable woman died at the Cattaraugus Reservation about 
a year ago. The following notice of her is extracted from Mi>s 
Johnson's "Iroquois; or, Bright Side of Indian Character" 
(D. Appleton & Co., N. K, 1855) : 

1 * * * The first Sabbath I attended [the Mission] church I noticed by my 
side a fine-looking woman, with the richest lint of clear Mingoe blood upon her 
cheeks, and her raven hair in soft, flowing masses, curving upon her temples, and 
twined in classic braids behind. Tall and portly in figure and dignified in deport- 
ment, she particularly attracted my attention, and the sweet and intelligent expression 
of her face told that she was no common woman. 


I asked who she was, and learned that she was the step-daughter of their most 
distinguished chief, Red Jacket, and one of whom he was particularly fond. She 
was a child when he was an old man, and sat on his knee, and stroked his withered 
cheek and kissed his brow, and received his most affectionate caresses. Her mother 
was the second wife of the great orator, and the faithful friend of the missionaries, 
and a consistent member of the little Mission Church during all the latter years of 
her life. The daughter, therefore, has had a Christian education, and is a thoroughly 
sensible and very interesting woman. 


• * * The wife and daughter were the only ones to whom he spoke parting 
words or gave a parting blessing ; but as his last hour drew nigh his family all 
gathered around him, and mournful it was to think that the children were not his 
own ; his were all sleeping in the little churchyard where he was soon to be laid ; 
they were his step-children — the children of his beloved wife. 

So there were none around his dying bed but step-children. These he had 
always loved and cherished, and they loved and honored him, for this their mother 
had taught them. The wife sat by his pillow and rested her hand upon his head. 
At his feet stood the two sons [Henry and Daniel Two Guns], who are now aged 
and Christian men, and by his side the little Ruth, whose little hand rested upon 
his withered and trembling palm. His last words were still, " Where is the mis- 
sionary ? " And then he clasped the child to his bosom while she sobbed in 
anguish — her ears caught his hurried breathing — his arms relaxed their hold — she 
looked up and he was gone (//. iq8, igg, idem). 

Note. — Miss Johnson obtained the materials for her interesting 
volume during many months sojourn among the Senecas, and while 
an inmate of the family of Rev. Asher Wright, the venerable 

APPENDIX No. 1 1. 


THE following exceedingly interesting letter from General 
Parker was in response to a letter of inquiry addressed to him, 
and which grew out of a remark of his, when in Buffalo in 
attendance at the obsequies, to the effect that Red Jacket's 
greatest disappointment was in not attaining to a place among 
the fifty Great League sachems : 

New York, November 26, 1884. 
William C. Bryant, Esq., Buffalo, N. Y. : 

Dear Sir — I owe you many apologies for not before answering 
yours of October 25th, which was duly received, but I have had so 
many other things to attend to that your letter was temporarily laid 
aside. I will now, however, respond as briefly as I can to your 
queries respecting Red Jacket. You say you " have always been led 
to believe that Red' Jacket did not belong to any of the noble or 
aristocratic families in which the title or distinction was hereditary." 
Also, "was his mother of noble birth," etc., etc. Let me disabuse 
your mind of one matter in the outset. Such a thing as aristocracy, 
nobility, class caste or social grades was unknown among the Iroquois. 
A political superiority was, perhaps, given by the founders of the 
League to the Mohawks, Onondagas and Senecas, who were styled 
" brothers," and were addressed as " fathers " by the Oneidas and 
Cayugas, who also were " brothers " and yet " children." Nor were 
the Turtle, Bear and Wolf clans invested with the first attribute of 
nobility or aristocracy because they were also the elder brothers and 
cousins to the other clans. I am of the opinion that no purer and 
truer democracy, or a more perfect equality of social and pel;: 
rights, ever existed among any people than prevailed among the 

~ <— «^. 


Iroquois at the time of their discovery by the whites. Often at that 
time and since persons attained positions of prominence and power 
by their superior intellectual abilities or their extraordinary prowess 
and success on the war-path. (Conspicuous examples of this fact 
are Joseph Brant and Red Jacket.) Successes of this kind, however, 
brought only temporary and ephemeral distinction to him, his family, 
his relations, his clan, and, perhaps, reflected some honor on his tribe. 
But this accidental or fatuitous distinction was not transmissible as a 
rightful or hereditary one, and was retained only so long as the 
intellectual superiority, military prowess or personal bravery could 
be maintained by the person or family. 

When declining years broke one's intellectual and physical powers 
some younger person immediately dropped in to fill the gap, and the 
old warrior or councilor fell away into obscurity. Thus it is easily 
seen how the hand of power and distinction could be constantly 
shifted from one person or family to another, and could never remain 
settled longer than he or they were able to uphold the qualities 
entitling them to the supremacy. The founders of the League may 
or may not have considered this question in the organization they 
made. They perfected a confederacy of tribes, officered by forty- 
eight hereditary sachems or peace men and two hereditary military 
sachems or chieftains. They ignored the individuality of persons 
(except Tododaho) and families and brought the several tribes into 
the closest relationship by the establishment of common clans or 
totemships, to whom was confided the hereditability of the League 
officers. It was a purely accidental circumstance that some of the 
clans in some of the tribes were not endowed with sachemships and 
that others got more than one. But because some of the clans got 
more than one sachem, and that a family in that clan was temporarily 
intrusted with the care of it, the clan or family were not in conse- 
quence thereof ennobled or made aristocratic. Bear in mind this 
fact, a sachemship belongs to a clan and is the property of no one 
family. Honorary distinctions are only assumed by the tribes or 
clans from the fact that the League makers gave them the rank of 
the elder or younger, and the family government and gradation of 
kinship was introduced to bring the same more readily to their 
comprehension, understanding and remembrance. 

This idea of Indian social grades with titles is all a vain and foolish 
fancy of the early imaginative writers, who were educated to believe 
in such things; and the idea is retained, used and still disseminated 

• ■ 68 

by our modern susceptibles who love and adore rank and quality, 

and who give and place them where none is claimed. I do not deny 
that Royaner in the Mohawk means Lord or Master, but the same 
word, when applied to terrestrial or political subjects, only means 
Councilor. The Seneca word is Hoyarna, Councilor — Hoyarnago- 
7uar, Great Councilor. These names are applied to the League 
officers only, and the term " great " was added to designate them 
more conspicuously and distinguish them from a great body of lesser 
men who had forced themselves into the deliberations of the League 
Councilors. The term Hasanowaneh (great name) is given to this 
last great body of men, a body now known as chiefs. They were 
never provided for and, as I believe, were never contemplated by 
the League originators, but they subsequently came to the surface, as 
I have hereinbefore set forth, and forced a recognition of their exist- 
ence upon the "Great Councilors," and, on account of their following 
and ability, were provided with seats at the council board. 

Red Jacket was one of these "chiefs." He was supremely and 
exclusively intellectual. He was a walking encyclopedia of the affairs 
of the Iroquois. His logical powers were nearly incontrovertible, at 
least to the untutored Indian generally. In his day, and to the 
times I am referring, the " Great Councilor's " word was his bond; it 
was of more weight and consequence than the word of a chief. 
Red Jacket knew this well, and, while he could not be made a Leag 
officer, he used every means which his wisdom and cunning could 
devise to make himself appear not only the foremost man of his 
tribe but of the League. He was ever the chosen spokesman of the 
matrons of tribes. He was spokesman of visiting delegations of 
Indians to the seat of government, whether state or federal. In tht 
signing of treaties, though unsuccessfully opposing them in open 
council, he would secretly intrigue for a blank space at or near the 
head of the list of signers, with a view, as the Indians asserted, of 
pointing to it as evidence that lie was among its early advocates, and 
also that he was among the first and leading men of his tribe. He 
was even charged with being double-faced and sometimes spea 
with a forked tongue. These and many other traits, both good and 
bad, which he possessed worked against him in the minds oi his 
people, and interposed an insurmountable bar to his becomil 
League officer. 

After the war of 1812, whenever Red Jacket visited the Tonawanda 
Reservation, he made my father's house his principal home, on 


6 9 

account of his tribal relationship to my mother, who was of the Wolf 
clan. My father and his brother Samuel were both intelligent men, 
and knew and understood the Indians well, and were also fairly- 
versed in Indian politics. During my early youth I have heard 
them discuss with other Indians the matters above referred to, and, 
while they always agreed as to the main facts, they generally differed 
only as to the underlying motives and intentions of Red Jacket in 
his various schemes. 

White men visiting Indians for information usually ask specific 
questions, to which direct and monosyllabic answers are generally 
given. Seldom will an Indian go beyond a direct answer and give a 
general or extended reply ; hence, I am not surprised that you had 
never heard anything respecting my statement, for as such a thing 
had never occurred to you, you have never thought to ask concerning 
it. The fact, however, remains the same, and I do not consider it 
derogatory of or a belittling of Red Jacket's general character. 
Men of mind are nearly always courageous and ambitious. Red 
Jacket was not an exception. 

You suggest the performance on my part of an act which is simply 
impossible. The words sachem, sagamore, chief, king, prince, 
cazique, queen, princess, etc., have been promiscuously and inter- 
changeably used by every writer on Indians ever since their discovery. 
I have seen three of the above terms used in one article with refer- 
ence to one and the same person, showing great looseness and want 
of discrimination in the writer. Yourself, let me say, mentions John 
Mt. Pleasant as " the principal hereditary sachem of the Tuscaroras." 
Now, my classification of Iroquois officers would be to rank the fifty 
original councilors as sachems, because they are the highest officers 
of the League. I would not use the term sagamore, because its use 
is almost wholly New England, and has been applied promiscuously 
to heads of bands, large and small, and sometimes to mere heads of 
families. To use other terms, such as king, prince, or princess (see 
King Philip, King Powhattan and Princess Pocahontas), is prepos- 
terous and presumptuous, considering the total absence among these 
people of the paraphernalia, belongings and dignity of royalty. My 
classification is: League officers, fifty in numbers, " Sackems" all 
others " Chiefs." The Tuscaroras, for certain reasons, were not 
admitted to a perfect equality in the League. They were not granted 
sachemships. Hence, Mt. Pleasant is not a sachem, only a chief. 
His talent and character might, indeed, constitute him the head 


chief of his tribe, but I doubt if his successor in name would take 
the same rank or exercise the same influence over the tribe that he 
does. Besides, the sachems alone can exercise a general authority 
in the League, while the chiefs' authority is confined to their respect- 
ive tribes or bands. To invent a new name now for our fifty League 
officers would produce endless confusion in papers and books rela: 
to them and their affairs. The task is too herculean to undertake. 

Pardon me for having been so prolix. I may also have failed to 
make myself understood, for I have been compelled for want of time 
to leave out a great deal of explanatory matter. But you are such a 
good Indianologist that I feel certain of your ability to comprehend 
me. I am, with respect, 

Your obedient servant, 


^-^- 1 fiirt 



This eminent philologist and scholar has kindly contributed 
to this work the following essay : 


In Morgan's admirable work on the " League of the Iroquois " we 
are told that " when the celebrated Red Jacket was elevated by 
election to the dignity of a chief, his original name, Otetiani, 'Always 
Ready,' was taken from him, and in its place was bestowed Sagoye- 
watha, 'Keeper Awake,' in allusion to the power of his eloquence." 

The name thus given requires some explanation. The Iroquois 
monosyllabic root, ye (spelt ie by the French missionaries, and pro- 
nounced exactly like the English affirmative " yea "), may be com- 
pared with the English monosyllable " wake," and like that has many 
derivatives. Kayeon signifies wakeful. Kayewate is " to be awakened." 
Adding the causative affix, tha, .we have Kayewatha, " to awaken or 
arouse." Substituting for the first syllable the compound pronoun, 
sago or sako, meaning "he-them," we get the word in question, 
Sagoyewatha, " he who awakens them," or, briefly, "the awakener," 
or "arouser." No word, certainly, could characterize better an 
orator of Red Jacket's peculiar eloquence, which, from the accounts 
given of it, was largely made up of stimulating appeals, pungent 
sarcasms and startling denunciations. 

The rank to which Red Jacket was thus elevated was, as is well 
known, not the highest grade in the Indian community. This high- 
est rank was that to which Morgan, in his work, has given the title 
of sachem, a name hardly appropriate, inasmuch as it is properly an 
Algonquin term, applied in that language to chiefs of any grade. It 
seems better to use either the native designation of royatur x or its 
literal translation, "lord," or "noble"; or else, if anyone prefers it, 


the descriptive epithet of "chief councilor." This rank was to Red 
Jacket unattainable, for the simple reason that it was hereditary in 
certain families, and that his own family did not belong to this class. 
There was, however, a secondary order of chiefs, which, if not coeval 
with the formation of the confederacy, must have come into existence 
soon after that event, and has played a great part in the history ot 
the League. This order bore in Iroquois the rather cumbrous 
designation of roskenrakehte-kenva, which may be literally Englished 
" great warrior." This translation, however, would be somewhat 
misleading. All the men of the Iroquois nations, as of other Indian 
tribes, were warriors. With us, where the fighting men form a class 
apart, the word warrior retains its original force. Among the Indians 
it is often used simply as a synonym for "man," as contradistinguished 
from woman or child. 1 "Great warrior," as an official designation, 
is, therefore, the same as " great man," or " head man." The Iroquois 
of Western Canada, who have kept the ancient usages of their con- 
federacy with scrupulous care, render this title in English sometimes 
"war chief " and sometimes " assistant chief." The latter rendering 
expresses most nearly the view which the Iroquois take of the origi- 
nal and proper office of the chiefs of this order. According to the 
theory of their government, every "lord" or "chief councilor" was 
entitled to an assistant chief or executive officer, whose duty it was 
to carry out the behests of his principal. The " assistant chief" was 
nominated by the royaner, but this nomination must be approved 
both by the Council of the nation and by the Great Council of the 
confederacy. Of course, it was the special object of each "lord " to 
have the most distinguished and influential assistant that he could 

1 Oskenra is an ancient word for ''war." Kakehte is "to carry." The com- 
pound word, roskennikehte, means "one who carries on war," and with the affixe 
adjective kowa, u great," makes the title, "great warrior." But since the Iroquois 
men have ceased to be a race of soldiers the word roskenrakehte has come to be 
taken in a larger sense, particularly in the Eastern Province. " This word," says 
M. Cuoq, in his Iroquois lexicon, "has now a more extended signification ; it i> 
equivalent to the Latin mas, the Spanish varon, the Algonquin mini." The author 
of the recent Iroquois translation of the Four Gospels, published in Montreal in 
iSSo (an educated Indian), has, therefore, used this term with perfect Lingi 
propriety in rendering the last word of the verse (Mark vi : 44), ■ And they 
did eat of the loaves were about five thousand men." The change of meaning in 
this word is one of those transitions common in all languages, which etymol 
have often occasion to note. Among the most curious illustrations in OUT own 
tongue may be mentioned the Anglo-Saxon cniht and ctta/a, each of which m 
originally " boy," but which, in modern English, have assumed the wide!) dissiinUai 
acceptations of " knight" and " knave." 


obtain. Thus, any Indian who became eminent, either for sagacity 
and eloquence or for leadership in war, was almost certain to be 
raised, sooner or later, to this rank. These assistants sat in council 
with the hereditary chiefs and were the most prominent in the debates 
— the dignified nobles usually reserving themselves in silence for 
the higher office of giving the decisive judgment. The situation was 
much the same as it would be in England if the lords and commons 
sat in the same assembly and the lords had alone the right of voting. 
Of course, in such an assemblage, an able and eloquent commoner, 
who was known to have the people at his back, would soon acquire 
a preponderating influence. 

Nearly all the most noted chiefs of the Iroquois nations, Garagon- 
thie, Garangula, Sadekanahtie, Dekanesora, Canasatego, and others 
who have made themselves historical by their skill in negotiation 
and their capacity for the direction of affairs — the Walpoles, Pitts, 
Cannings and Gladstones of this forest commonwealth — have been 
of this nominally secondary grade. It has been commonly sup- 
posed — and the supposition is countenanced even by so high an 
authority as Morgan — that the chieftainship to which Red Jacket 
was raised belonged to this order. But this supposition appears 
to be questionable. 

By the rules of the League — rules which are strictly maintained in 
the Canadian branch of the confederacy — the number of assistant 
chiefs was limited by that of the superior chiefs or great councilors. 
Thus, the Mohawks had nine royaners to represent them in the 
council, and they would have nine "great warriors," and no more. 
A list of the chiefs who compose the present Great Council on the 
Canadian Reserve of the Six Nations has lately been furnished by 
their secretary, himself an "assistant chief," and it entirely confirms 
this statement. This list, however, comprises no Senecas. The 
Seneca nation remained in its own country, and its political consti- 
tution had a peculiar development. That development had, in fact, 
commenced long before the disruption of the confederacy, and was 
due to special circumstances which affected this nation alone. The 
Senecas were the nearest to those other tribes of the Huron-Iroquois 
stock which the Iroquois overcame and incorporated with their own 
people — the Attiwandaronks or Neutrals, the Hurons. Erics, and 
Conestogas. There is reason to believe that when the confederacy 
was formed the Senecas did not much, if at all, exceed in number 
anv of the other nations. There is a tradition, indeed, that they had 


been reduced by the first Atotarho to a state of subjection to his 
people, the Onondagas. These later accessions, however, enlarged 
the population to an altogether disproportionate number. When Sir 
William Johnson, in 177 1, made a sort of census or estimate of all 
the Indian tribes (which Stone, in his Life of Johnson, has preserved 
for us) he set down the Senecas as numbering 1,050 warriors, while 
the other five nations together counted only 900. Yet, according to 
the original constitution of the confederacy, while the Mohawks, 
numbering 160 men, would have eighteen chiefs (nine nobles and 
nine assistants), the Senecas, with over 1,000 warriors, would have 
only sixteen chiefs (eight roya?iers and their eight assistants). It is 
clear that this number, which might have been sufficient when the 
confederacy was formed, would, under these different circumstances, 
be altogether inadequate for the domestic government, or what may 
be called the home police, of the nation, with its many villages and 
its numerous fragments of ill-amalgamated tribes. A new class of 
chiefs was therefore established, specially for this nation, with the 
title of hasennowane, which is rendered by Morgan " an elevated 
name." It means properly " great name," being derived from kasctnia, 
name, and kowa?ie, great. Morgan has well described the origin and 
character of this order of chiefs, but has made the mistake — which, 
at the time and under the circumstances in which he wrote, was 
almost unavoidable — of confounding them with the " great warriors " 
who sat in the confederate council. At the date of Morgan's work 
(in 185 1) the number of Seneca chiefs, exclusive of the eight lords. 
was no less than seventy. The jealous nobles of the League would 
certainly not have allowed this overwhelming number of Seneca 
"war-chiefs" to sit in their Great Council. But, in fact, at that time 
the Great Council did not exist, except in its Canadian revival. The 
hasennowane, or " chiefs of distinguished name," were purely a Seneca 
creation. In 185 1, as Morgan informs us, the total number of souls 
in the Seneca nation of New York was only about 2,500. There 
was thus one chief to every thirty-five persons, or, on an ave:\. ge, 
to every seven families. The rank which the office conferred was 
evidently not a high one. It hardly attained to the dignity belong - 
to that of a justice of .the peace or a- village councilman among their 
white neighbors. 

The office, however, did undoubtedly give the right of sitti g 
the local council of the Seneca nation; and it was certain that 
member of that council who possessed the capacity and eloquence 


of Red Jacket would quickly become the premier and virtually the 
ruler of the nation. A. knowledge of this fact will account for the 
eagerness which he showed to attain the chieftainship. From the 
time he gained this office he controlled by his natural powers the 
destinies of his people, so far as it was possible for one individual to 
do so. He was at once the Pericles and the Demosthenes of this 
little primitive democracy. His impassioned harangues " fulmined 
over " it to Albany and Washington, where they produced effects of 
which his people still feel the benefit. If he had enjoyed a wider 
field for the display of his remarkable powers it may fairly be doubted 
whether any statesman of ancient or modern times would be deemed to 
have surpassed him in the qualities of an orator and a leader of men. 
Whatever may have been the nominal rank which the title of " Ex- 
alted Name " conferred upon him, we may safely affirm that the 
designation, in its literal sense, was never more fitly bestowed. 

Note. — Since the foregoing was written, a further study of the 
subject has recalled to mind an important letter of Mr. Morgan, 
which was published in the appendix to Schoolcraft's " Notes on the 
Iroquois," and which should, in justice to its eminent author, be 
noticed. The letter is dated Oct. 7, 1845, — some six years before the 
publication of Morgan's work on the " League of the Iroquois." He 
had just attended, for the first and probably the only time, a meeting 
of the " Great Council " of the Six Nations, held at Tonawanda, and 
comprising apparently members of all the tribes, — probably the last 
of such meetings ever held south of Lake Ontario. The information 
which he there received had given him new ideas of the " vastness 
and complexity of the Indian fabric." More than twenty letters, 
he declares, would be needed to explain all that he had seen and 
heard. But he sketches, in a few words, with perfect correctness, the 
outline of the Iroquois constitution. "We learn," he says, " that at 
the establishment of the confederacy, fifty sachemships were founded, 
and a name assigned to each, which they are still known by, and 
which names every sachem of the several sachemdoms, from the 
beginning to the present time, has borne. There were also fifty sub- 
sachems, or aids; that is, to every sachem was given a sub-sachem to 
stand behind him,— in a word, to do his bidding." Brant, he was 
assured, was only "a chief, or an officer of the third and Incest class." 
During the following years, Morgan pursued his researches, but, as it 
would seem, almost entirely among the Senecas, whose political 

7 6 

institutions had undergone a radical change. The result was that in 
his published work the " sub-sachems " are not found. Only one 
class of chiefs below the sachems is recognized, the hasennowant, 
whose number is represented as unlimited. This was a correct ac- 
count of the Seneca system, as it then existed, but gave, as has been 
shown, an erroneous view of the proper Iroquois constitution. 




Clinton, Ontario, Jan. 22, 1885. 
My Dear Mr. Bryant: 

That Red Jacket's original name, Otetiani, signified " Always 
Ready," cannot reasonably be doubted, as this interpretation was, in 
all probability, furnished by the chief himself. On the other hand, 
the evidence of General Parker and of Zachariah Jemison, which you 
have obtained, makes it clear that the word is not how known in the 
Seneca language. We must, therefore, as Jemison suggests, look to 
another dialect of the Six Nations for an explanation of the name. 
Fortunately there is no difficulty in finding it. 

In the old French Onondaga dictionary, composed about two 
hundred years ago, and published by Dr. Shea in his " Library of 
American Linguistics," we find under Prest (i. e. pret, ready) the 
composite form agadeye?inoktahi, I am ready, desadeyejinoktahi, thou 
art ready, dehadeyennok, he is ready. Here the first two syllables of 
each word aga, dera and deha> are the pronouns, I, thou and he, with 
— in the last two forms — the "cislocative " particle de (here) prefixed. 
The root deyen, "ready," follows, with the terminal affix oktahi 
(abridged in the third person to ok) annexed. This affix is probably 
from okta (Onondaga), okte (Mohawk), signifying "end " or "final " — 
"lam finally ready," or, ''I am ready at last." De-ha-deyenn-ok may 
be literally rendered " here-he-is ready-at last." 

Deyen is evidently identical with //<///, the difference being merely 
in orthography. The / and d are interchangeable in all the Iroquois 
dialects. In O-te-tian-i, the initial O (for ho) is the pronoun M he. M 


Te is perhaps from the first syllable of tiotkotit (Onondaga), dyatgont 
(Seneca), "always." The final /is an inflection, verbalizing I 
word. The name will then signify " He-always-is ready." 
. That the name should have been retained among the Senecas, 
though the meaning has been lost in their language, is not at all sur- 
prising. It was, doubtless, one of the " clan names " which were in 
use in one particular clan throughout the Six Nations. In the 
changes of language, which time inevitably brings, the root of the 
word might become obsolete in one or more dialects — or indeed in 
all, but the name would still be retained, — precisely as has happened 
among ourselves with common Anglo-Saxon names, such as Alfred 
and Edwin. The opinion which generally prevails that all Indian 
proper names are significant, is true only in the sense in which the 
same may be affirmed of all English names. All originally had a 
meaning, but in many cases this meaning has been lost. As you 
aware, the names of the fifty great chiefs, or councilors, who framed 
the Iroquois League, continue in use to this day; but the meaning of 
about one-fourth of these names is now unknown. The Indians tell 
you that they are "just names," and nothing more. It is only by the 
chance of our possessing an ancient Onondaga lexicon that we are 
enabled to explain the purport of Red Jacket's original name, which 
doubtless was as clear to his forefathers, some centuries ago, as that 
of William or Frederick was to our own. 

. Yours very faithfully, 





The Canadian Iroquois have no tradition concerning Garangula, 
so far as I can learn, and they were unable to give any satisfactory 
explanation of the name, in the form in which we have it. It has 
probably been much corrupted in the utterance of the white people, 
as is usually the case with Indian names. If we did not know the 
origin of " Oneida," who would suspect its Indian form to be O-nong- 
ya-te, or its meaning to be "protruding stone?" The notion that 
Garangula is a corruption of the French Grande Gueule, u Great 
Mouth," seems to me a most improbable one. We can test the like- 
lihood of it by a simple supposition. If the English hunters and 
traders had been accustomed to speak of the chief as " Big Mouth," 
can we imagine that an English traveler or missionary would transform 
that name into Bigga?notka, or anything similar, with the notion of 
India nizing -it? The idea is plainly absurd. 

The corruption was probably the other way. The chief had an 
Indian name somewhat resembling in sound Grande Gueule, and as 
he was noted for his eloquence — or what the common people would 
call his power of jaw — it was natural enough that the French "coureurs 
de bois" should invent and use this corrupt form in lieu of the correct 
name, — precisely as the English sailors converted the classic name of 
their war-ship, the Bellerophon, into the more intelligible M Billy 

I think it likely that the chief's name, or official title, was Gat 
hona (which, in another and perhaps exacter orthography, would 
become Garang/iuna), meaning " Lofty Tree." The word occurs in 

1 See Judge Clinton's Address. 


its Mohawk form, and verbalized, in the list of Mohawk royaners, or 
councilors, as sJiarenhowane, which was explained to me as meaning 
" He is the loftiest tree." It is composed of garenha, tree-top, and 
kowane, great. In the. ancient Onondaga idiom, which admitted the 
r (now disused), it would assume, as a noun, one or other of the 
briefer forms which are given above, and which, with the not uncom- 
mon change of n to /, approach nearly to Garangula. 

This Mohawk councilor belonged to the Bear clan. It is probable 
that the name of " Lofty Tree," which he bore, was one of the name> 
which belonged to that clan in all the Iroquois nations. Its signifi- 
cance would naturally cause it to be selected among the Onondaga?, 
as the official name of a distinguished war-chief and noted leader in 
council, like Garangula. 

"Great Mouth " would be rahsowana ; but it is not at all likely that 
the chief received his name from any physical trait of that sort. It 
is seldom, if ever (except in novels), that an Indian is named from 
any personal characteristic. 





The Young King, or Gui-en-gwah-toh, was born at or near the 
site of the present village of Canandaigua about the year 1760. He 
was probably the nephew, on his mother's side, of the Seneca 
sachem, popularly known as Old Smoke, or the Old King — renowned 
in our earlier annals — to whose title, Gui-en-gwah-toh, " the bearer 
of the smoking brand," or, more literally, " the smoke has disap- 
peared," he succeeded. This titular dignity, which invested him 
with the right to kindle and extinguish the council fire of his nation, 
— always the most numerous. and powerful in the Iroquois confed- 
eracy, — bestowed upon him and his uncle, the Old King, a delusive 
prestige and rank which led the whites to speak of them as royal 

Young King was a man of lofty stature and herculean mould, and 
of great force of character, though not endowed with the rare 
intellectual qualities which rendered his uncle the most influential 
Seneca chieftain of his period. 

The leader of the Indians at the so-called massacre of Wyoming, 
history alleges, was a Seneca chief known to the natives by the name 
of Gui-en-gwah-toh. Careful investigators affirm that Old King was 
too aged, and Young King too juvenile, to have taken part in that 
lamentable tragedy. It is certain, however, that there was never 
more than a few weeks' interregnum between the death of an Indian 
chief and the appointment of his successor, and Seneca tradition is 
silent as to any intervening bearer of the council brand, although, 
indeed, there may have been one. Col. Proctor, who was delegated 
by President Washington in 1791 to treat with the Indians, visited 


the Senecas at Buffalo Creek in the spring of that year. The Young 
King was then apparently the leading man of his nation, or second 
only to the great war chief, Cornplanter. He seemed to be largely 
under the influence of Col. Butler and the British. Proctor says 
that " the Young King was fully regimentaled as a colonel ; red, 
faced with blue, as belonging to some royal regiment, and equipped 
with a pair of the best epaulets, so that," he adds, " from his af:er 
conduct it may not appear extraordinary when the King has thrown 
in his opposition to my errand, he being paid so well for his influence 
.over the Indian nations as to carry his favorite point in question." l 
Red Jacket is mentioned by Col. Proctor as the " young prince of 
the Turtle tribe," and allusion is made to his engaging countenance 
and remarkable gifts of oratory. It is natural to infer that Young 
King was the senior of Red Jacket, and old enough to have followed 
his patron, Col. Butler, to the bloody field of Wyoming. Captain 
Pollard, a noted Seneca chief, affirmed that the Young King led the 
Indians on that occasion. 2 Indian youths, of comparatively tender 
years, often enrolled themselves in the ranks of a war party, and won 
an enviable name for their enterprise and valor. 

The Young King during the war of 1812 espoused the cause of 
the United States against the British, and in one engagement was 
seriously wounded. 

In his earlier days he was addicted to intemperance, but on his 
conversion to Christianity he became a zealous advocate of temper- 
ance as well as the leading promoter of education and progress in 
his tribe. During his more reckless days, in a brawl, — where the 
testimony shows he was not the aggressor, — he lost an arm and 
suffered other mutilation, and yet to the last his gigantic figure and 
commanding features wore the grandeur of a desolated and battered 

" He was the first man who built a rod of fence on the BulTalo 
Reservation, where the missionaries first resided ; and often in the 
cold winter days would be seen on Saturday crossing the creek in his 
little canoe, to see if the church were supplied with fuel for the 
Sabbath, and if it were not, with his one hand wielded the axe 
chopped the little pile, which he also carried to the door to be sure 
that it was ready for the morning service, saying that he came so late 
into the vineyard, he must work diligently in order to accomplish 

1 History of Buffalo and the Senecas-, vol 1. p. 423, Appendix. 

2 American Historical Record, vol. I, p. 11O. 


anything before he was called away." ' His manners were 
peculiarly suave and refined. His hospitality and benevolence were 
proverbial. He died in 1835 and was buried at East Buffalo in the 
old Mission Cemetery. 


Captain Pollard, Ga-on-do-wau-na, Big Tree, a Seneca sachem of 
the first class, was a cotemporary of Red Jacket and only second to 
him as an orator. In moral attributes he was the superior of Red 
Jacket, being literally a man without guile and distinguished for his 
benevolence and wisdom. In youth he was an ambitious warrior, 
and made himself conspicuous in the many forays against the border 
settlements by the British and Indians during the Revolutionary war. 
He participated in the affair at Wyoming. He was one of the 
earliest fruits of missionary labors at Buffalo Creek, and after his 
conversion to Christianity always spoke with abhorrence and deep 
contrition of the events of his warrior days, and he afterwards led a 
blameless and beneficent life. 

Pollard was a half-breed, his father being an English sutler or 
Indian trader, — whose headquarters appear to have been at Fort 
Niagara, — and his mother a Seneca woman. The celebrated Cath- 
arine Montour (Queen Catharine) became his step-mother and bore 
to his father three sons, all of whom were renowned in the border 
warfare of those troublous times. 

Pollard was formally selected by the Indians as their leader, or 
war captain, at the commencement of the war of 1S12, and was an 
able and valiant ally of our forces during the entire struggle. He 
was a man of commanding presence, — of dignified and benevolent 
aspect, showing but little traces of his Indian lineage. He died at 
an advanced age on the 10th day of April, 1841, and was buried in 
the old Mission Cemetery. He left no descendants. His wife, 
Catharine, who survived him several years, was buried by his side, 
together with the last of his family, a little granddaughter. The 
three sleep together in the new Indian burial-lot at Forest Lawn. 
Ketchum (" Buffalo and the Senecas "), who knew him personally, 
says that " after the death of Farmer's Brother the most considerable 
of the chiefs of the Senecas was Captain Pollard, or Kaoundowana." 

1 Miss Johnson's " Iroquois," p. 218. See also Letchworth's " History of the 
Pratt Family." 

s 4 

Colonel Stone (" Life and Times of Red Jacket," p. 373). say- 
" Captain Pollard, or Ka-oun-do-wa-no, is yet living (1841,) a vener- 
able-looking old man, with a finely developed head which would 
form a noble subject of study for Dr. Combe." 


Little Billy, Jish-ge-ge, or Katy-did (an insect), is always men- 
tioned in cotemporary records as " The War Chief." He died at 
the Seneca village, Buffalo Creek, December 28th, 1834, a very aged 
man. There is a tradition extant which asserts that he was one of 
the Indian guides who accompanied the youthful Washington on his 
memorable mission to Fort Duquesne during the old French and 
Indian war. 1 The few aged Senecas who remember him affirm that 
he was a man of marked integrity and of irreproachable habita. 
Only the most meagre materials for his biography remain, although 
his name is appended to many treaties and occurs in the " Life and 
Times of Red Jacket," and other writings relating to the Indian-. 
The same remark is equally applicable to the two chiefs next 


Destroy-Town, Go-non-da-gie. " He destroys the town " (more 
accurately, O-shah-go-non-da-gie), was a leading councilor in his 
nation, a brave warrior, a man noted for the soundness of his judg- 
ment, his love of truth, his probity and his bravery as a warrior. 
Destroy-Town bore the same name that the Iroquois bestowed on 
General Washington, who, in consequence of his generosity toward 
this conquered and despairing people, at the close of the Revolution- 
ary war, was enshrined in their affections and reverenced not less 
than William Perm, the just pale-face. 


Tall Peter, Ha-no-ja-cya, according to the orthography oi pub- 
lished treaties and other documents, was also a compeer of the great 
Seneca orator. His Indian name should be written Wa-o-no-jai - 
and signified he has swallowed a tooth. In middle age he became a 
Christian and thereafter led a useful and exemplary life. The few 
aged Indians who remember him speak of him with respect and 

1 Washington, in his narrative of that expedition, mentions a Seneca chief" named 
Jes-ka-ka-ke, evidently another form of spelling Little Polly's Indian name 


affection. He was one of their leading chiefs. I have been able to 
glean only these few particulars concerning him. 

He was a man of gigantic stature, fully seven feet high, and died 
and was buried at the Mission Cemetery some fifty years ago, aged 
probably about seventy years. 


Near the center of the old Mission Cemetery and opposite the 
main entrance, was a cluster of graves in which were buried Red 
Jacket and his brother chiefs. The pride and valor and wisdom of 
the nation, before it became spiritless and moribund, slumbered 
there. There were no monuments, not even a head-stone, to mark 
the respective resting-places of these aboriginal lords, — only a vener- 
able walnut-tree which stretched out its sheltering arms and spread 
its canopy of foliage over the hallowed spot. Humphrey Tolliver, 
an aged runaway slave from Virginia, with his white wife and 
mulatto children, occupied a cottage and cultivated a few acres of 
garden land bordering the cemetery grounds. He had lived there 
many years, — when Red Jacket was in his glory and the leader of 
his people. He continued to reside there long after the last loitering 
Seneca turned his back upon the ancient seat of his tribe, never 
more to return. Thereafter Tolliver became the self-appointed 
sexton of the old graveyard when the crowd of white immigrants 
surged in to fill the places of the departed Senecas, and he buried 
the pale-faced dead in the holy ground which had been consecrated 
as the place of sepulture of the red men. Never could he be induced, 
however, to consent that the sacred area, about the walnut tree, 
should be profaned by the spade of the grave-digger. He would 
shake his gray head and say, " The big men of the Senecas were 
buried there." He knew them well, those silent, composed and 
mysterious men, in strange, picturesque garb and speaking an incom- 
prehensible language. He died a few years since at a very advanced 
age, and a new custodian of the Indian cemetery, — a white man who 
lacked sensibility and was superior to the weakness of superstition, — 
succeeded to the humble office. 

Besides the remains we have been successful in identifying, there 
reposed in this little area the ashes of Two Guns, Twenty Canoes. 
John Snow, White Chief, and several other chieftains, all of whom are 
numbered among the nine undistinguished dead re-interred with 
Red Jacket. 


Sagoyewatha sleeps at Forest Lawn surrounded by the same dusky 
group of compatriots and friends who stretched their weary frames 
and laid them down to rest beside him in the old Mission Cemetery 
at East Buffalo. 



1. Rev. Dr. Breckenridge had an interview with Red Jacket and his brother 
chiefs at the residence of General Porter at North Buffalo in 1821. He says, " Red 
Jacket was dressed with much taste in the Indian costume throughout. He wore a 
blue dress, the upper garment cut after the fashion of a hunting-shirt, with blue 
leggings, very neat moccasins, a red jacket, and a girdle of red about his waist. I 
have seldom seen a more dignified or noble-looking body of men than the entire 
group." — Stone s Life of Red Jacket, p. 400. 

2. " Tollifer," Anglice, Talliafero, one of the F. F. V.'s. He was a very tall 
and jet-black negro, — an honest and worthy man. 

3. The last Seneca who lingered on the Buffalo Creek Reservation after the 
fraudulent treaty which ceded it away to the infamous Ogden Land Company, was 
Johnny John, whom I remember as a noble-looking type of the full-blooded Iroquois. 
He refused to surrender possession of his humble abode, and was finally evicted, 
pursuant to a decree of the Supreme Court in an action of ejectment. 

4. Red Jacket's Indian name or title should be pronounced Sa-go-ye-wat-ha 
— a as in fate, a as in far ; strongly accented on the second and fourth syllables. 

5. Henry Placide, the eminent comedian, some thirty-five years ago caused a 
marble slab with a brief and suitable inscription to be placed at the head of Red 
Jacket's grave.. Relic hunters and other vandals mutilated and chipped it away in 
a pitiless manner. What .they left of it is deposited in the rooms of the Buffalo 
Historical Society. 


From the Deseronto Tribune. 



BER 4, 1884. 

The Mohawk Indians celebrated the hundredth anniversary of 
their landing on the Tyendinaga Reserve on Thursday, September 
4th. The place selected for the demonstration was the beautiful 
grove adjoining Christ Church ; and certainly no more charming 
locality could be selected for the purpose, the grove which overlooks 
the bay being one of the finest in this part of the district. There was 
a very large attendance of visitors from all parts of the adjoining 
country, all of whom appeared to enjoy the day's proceedings, which 
proved highly interesting and eminently successful. The Indians of 
the Reserve were out in force, several being dressed in the costumes 
worn by the nation in ye olden time. On the grounds there could be 
seen an old wigwam on which there was in large figures 1784, and 
near by a handsome white tent with 1SS4. There was a good- display 
of bunting, the Union Jack predominating, and a large stand had 
been erected under some grand trees from which the various speakers 
could be well heard by all present. The Deseronto cornet band was 
in attendance and played several selections during the proceedings, 
while a well-trained choir, under the leadership of the teachers of the 
Reserve schools, also contributed various patriotic songs, etc., with 
good taste, between the various speeches. The speeches were of a 
high order, and in this respect this centennial was probably superior 
to others held elsewhere this year in Canada. 

After devotional exercise and prayers, which were read by Rev 
Rural Dean Baker, Mr. Solomon Loft, who admirably performed the 
duty of chairman, called on Chief Sampson Green, the first speaker. 


who, in full costume, came to the front and extended a welcome, on 
behalf of the Mohawk nation, to all visitors. He said it was custom- 
ary for his forefathers, when they assembled for council, to commence 
their proceedings by smoking the pipe of peace. He would, there- 
fore, in accordance with this old usage, ask the distinguished visitor^ 
on the platform to join him in smoking the pipe of peace. The pipe 
was accordingly lighted by the chairman and each present took a puff 
as a token of their amicable intentions. The chief then proceeded 
to explain the reasons why the Mohawks happened to be now on the 
Reserve, and went back to the earliest treaties of England with his 
nation — treaties which had been faithfully observed by both parties. 
Prior to the American Revolution, the Mohawks had dwelt in the 
valley of the Mohawk River, New York, where they occupied a large 
territory, having fine farms and prosperous villages. When the colon- 
ists rebelled, the Indians remembered their treaty and remained Loyal, 
and with a small minority of colonists stood to their colors. When 
the independence of the Colonies was acknowledged, the question 
came up whether they would remain, or go to Canada and commence 
life again. The Six Nations remained true to King George, gave up 
homes, fields and everything beside, and came to Canada, being led 
by the great Tyendinaga and John Deseronto. They crossed the St. 
Lawrence and came to Lachine, near Montreal, where they remained 
seven years. \Y T ith the U. E. Loyalists they were informed that 
grants of land would-be given them in lieu of what they had lost, and 
in anyplace they should choose. They proceeded west to Cataraqui. 
where it was agreed around a council fire to dispatch the chiefs to 
explore and select a proper place. Captain Brant went up the lakes 
to Grand River near Brant ford, and Chief Deseronto came up the 
Bay of Quinte to Tyendinaga. They returned and reported, and it 
was decided that the nation should divide, and accordingly fifteen 
families came up the bay and landed at a spot near what is now 
known as McCullough's dock, in May, 17S4. The rest of the nati 
passed up the lake and settled at Grand River. To these fifteen 
families, whose landing they were celebrating, George III., in a d 
dated April, 1783, granted the Tyendinaga Reserve. They had pros- 
pered fairly, had two churches, one of which had cost $7,000. the 
other §4,000, and had four school-houses for the instruction of then 
children. The fifteen families who had landed had increased to .. 
community of over one thousand souls. He thanked his audience 
for joining in their celebration, and that there was no enmity now 

s 9 

between white and red men — all were Christians. The chief then 
took his seat amid loud applause, the choir singing " Rule Britannia." 

The next speaker was Rev. J. C. Ash, of Shannonville, who first 
expressed the pleasure it afforded him to take part in this unique 
celebration. It was exceedingly appropriate to sing "Rule Britan- 
nia," for the Indians had never been enslaved. The past history of 
the Mohawk nation, he stated, afforded an illustration of the unswerv- 
ing loyalty which had never been surpassed, if indeed ever equaled. 
They had given up their magnificent territories and had come to 
Canada in order to be under the old flag. Britain had always pro- 
tected and remained true to the aboriginal tribes, and always evinced 
a parental regard for the aboriginal people who come under her 
dominion. When he came to Canada, thirteen years ago, it was said 
that the Indian races were doomed to extinction, but the remarks of 
their chief, showing that they had grown from fifteen families to 1,000 
people, contradicted such an assertion. Under the benign influences 
of religion and the absence of the cursed firewater they were certain 
to prosper and enjoy greater blessings to come. He trusted that 
the harmony and good-will would, as in this country, continue to exist 
between all parts of the British empire. On taking his seat Mr. Ash 
was accorded hearty applause. 

After a selection from the Deseronto cornet band, the Rev. R. H. 
Harris, of Brighton, spoke, referring the principle of loyalty which 
actuated the Mohawks to the result of the influence of religion. 
Religion was not a mere mass of dogmas, but a living, practical 
reality. The Mohawk nation had left a mark, broad and deep, on 
the history of the country. 

John White, Esq., M. P., on coming to the front, was loudly 
cheered. After an amusing ancedote, he referred to the fact that there 
were 100,000 Indians in the Northwest, and that these were ever 
ready to yield obedience to the British flag, and this he illustrated by 
an instance in the life of McDougall, the great Methodist missionary 
in the Northwest. He had been cordially welcomed on his recent 
visit to the West, because he came from the home of the great 
Mohawk nation. Referring to the fact that the Indians had. as 
tenants, many white men who acknowledged that their landlords were 
good fellows, — would (said he) that such were the case in Ireland. 
One thousand mounted police could not keep the peace in the North- 
west, were it not for the respect paid by the Indians to the British 
rlag, under which he hoped to live and die. 

9 o 

After a song from the choir, Witt. Hudson, Esq., If. P. for Hast 
Hastings, gave a short speech. He was glad to meet so many of his 
supporters met to commemorate such an important event. The Six 
Nations were not behind the whites in their attachment to the good 
flag; they had taken up arms nobly in defense of the crown. 

Dr."Oronhyatekha followed in an excellent speech abounding with 
wit and humor. He said that after so much eloquence from clerirv- 
men and members of parliament, they would not consent to listen to 
a common Indian. Still he was proud of being a Mohawk, as they 
were the best people on the face of the earth, and that for the follow- 
ing reasons : Every Mohawk who was left alive had left the other side 
after the war, but not so the whites — some of them remained. He 
then gave a humorous account of the origin of the Indians, which 
accounted for the superiority of the red men. It was asserted that 
Indians made women do all the work and treated them as inferior 
creatures; but this was incorrect, as they knew to their cost. They 
did just as they pleased, and as a matter of fact the chieftainship in 
Indian tribes descends by the woman, and woman controlled the 
education of the children. Sir John Macdonald, as Mr. White had 
stated, had reason to be a friend to the Indians, as he had got the 
idea of confederation from the confederacy of the Six Nations. 
Again philologists had shown that language is the index of character. 
Indians cannot swear except in English, and, further still, they had 
never drunk whisky until the advent of the whites. This was the 
result of bad company. He prayed the white men to keep liquor 
from the Indian. He wanted the members of parliament present to 
tell of the class of people they had met, and to work in order that the 
Indians might get the right of the franchise. 

" Home, Sweet Home " was then sung by a number of children. 

Rev. S. Forneri, of Adolphustown, was the next speaker. Referring 
to the remark of a previous speaker who had said that a centennial 
was a thing which occurred only once in a life-time, he stated that 
he had been present already this year at three centennials. He judged 
from the remarks of the previous speaker that the Indians were 
susceptible to flattery, and, in the presence of the deadly tomahawk. 
he would proceed in the same strain. The Indians were, he pro- 
ceeded to say, in the first rank of U. E. Loyalists, as. accordir._ 
Rev. Dr. Stuart, they had landed on Quinte* fourteen days before their 
white brethren. They were Loyalists par excellence, because thoi 
the whites were allowed to carry away their valuables, the I 
were burnt out of house and home, forty villages being desti 


and their loyalty afterward put to the proof by bribes, but all in vain. 
The Indians had pioneered our religious institutions, having built 
the first church, and they were Loyalists in the highest degree, as 
they were proud of Canada and British connection. The idea of a 
confederation was suggested to the United States by the Six Nations, 
and we had got the idea from our neighbors. 

He thought we all should continue to sink or swim with England ; 
there would be no sinking, however, we would get on swimmingly 
together. Independence and separation were the dreams of a youth 
ashamed of cord and bonds. We should rather remain satisfied with 
British connection. The Mohawks did not wish to sever their con- 
nection with Britain, and if closer connection were made, as some 
supposed, the Mohawk nation would have a representative, as in i860 
they had elected the Prince of Wales a chieftain. The speaker con- 
cluded an excellent address amid great applause. 

Rev. Mr. Foster, of Shelby, followed in a brief speech, inculcating 
the principles of loyalty to country and respect for religion, and the 
necessity of all uniting to work for the welfare of our common country. 

Rev. E. H. M. Baker, Rural Dean, then addressed the assemblage, 
expressing the pleasure it afforded him, as the clergyman who had 
the Indians as his spiritual charge, of welcoming so many visitors. 
He had come from the United States, but he was born a British sub- 
ject, and had strong U. E. L. sympathies. He said that they were 
that day by a curious coincidence celebrating three great events ; 
first, it was the tercentenary of the handing over by the Six Nations 
of the Ohio valley to the British authorities; secondly, it was the 
bicentenary of the conversion of the Mohawks to Christianity, and, 
thirdly, their landing in 1784. The Mohawks had come from the 
United States because they foresaw it would be for their good, and 
he then graphically described the encroachment of the whites 
on the Indians in that country. He said that he discerned in 
the near future two political movements, viz., the passage of a 
prohibitory law, which would be. a boon to the Indians, and the 
other, the enfranchisement of the Indians, a measure which he 
asserted was favored by Mr. John White and Hon. Speaker Kirk- 
patrick. When these two measures were secured there was sure to 
follow prosperity for the Indian population of Canada. 

Rev. G. A.Anderson, of Penetanguishene, succeeding Mr. Baker, 
expressed the pleasure he felt to meet so many old friends after so 
many years of absence and to find that there were no divisions or 


troubles among them. He dealt with the religious history of the 
Mohawks. Rev. Dr. Moore had been sent out by Queen Anne to 
the Mohawk valley. He was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Andrews in 
1710, who brought the communion service which was there to 
seen beside him on the stand. He had erected a chapel, the money 
being furnished by the Queen's bounty. Mr. Barclay was the next 
clergyman, and he in time was followed by the well-known Dr. John 
Stuart, who came with them to Canada and erected a chapel of large 
oak timber, the remains of which could be seen a few years ago. The 
Mohawks when they came brought a little captive white girl who 
refused to part from the Indians, even at the solicitation of her friends. 
Her name was Christina Smart and she died in 1881, aged 11 1 year-. 
and she was the great grandmother of- their honored chief, Sampson 
Green. The Reserve previous to their arrival had been occupied by 
the Ojibways, and many old relics of that tribe had been turned up 
during recent years. He hoped the Nation would continue to prosper 
and that God's blessing would descend upon their children's children. 
Rev. T. G. Porter, of Shannonville, owing to the late hour, spoke 
very briefly ; he had no doubt that the trials and sacrifices which they 
had passed through as a people in their early history were the direct 
means of preserving their existence as a nation at this day, and they 
should be thankful for the fact. They now enjoyed the protection 
of the British flag, whereas if they had remained in the United States. 
they would have been compelled to leave their homes and move 
farther on, as had been the case with the tribes in that country. 

After an eloquent speech in Mohawk by the chairman and an 
address in English by Chief Green, thanking all for their kindness in 
attending, and the ladies who assisted in preparing refreshments, 
cheers were given for the Queen, Sir John Macdonald, Lady Mac- 
donald and others. " God save the Queen " was sung with great 
effect and the meeting came to a close. 

There were several other speakers present, among whom iras 
J. J. Watson, Esq., of Adolphustown, but time did not allow any 
more speeches and these gentlemen waived their privilege. The best 
of order prevailed, refreshments were bountifully supplied by the 
ladies, who had also arranged a grand museum of curiosities and 
other attractions. Interesting games and sports went on until dark- 
ness set in and every one appeared happy and satisfied. The people 
on the Reserve have, in fine, every reason to be proud of their 
successful demonstration. 


From the Brantford Evening Telegram. 


OCTOBER, 24, 1884. 

Friday was the closing day of the Seventeenth Agricultural 
Exhibition of the Six Nations Indians. On the day previous there 
was a very large assemblage of natives and visitors upon the grounds, 
something over three hundred dollars being taken in at the gate. 
There was a very material diminution in the attendance on Friday, 
the cold, blustering weather doubtless detaining many who would 
otherwise have been present. Among the visitors were the Hon. J. 
Burr Plumb, of Niagara, Wm. Patterson, M. P., ex-Mayor Robert 
Henry, Supt. Gilkison and a number of Brantford people. The 
Agricultural Exhibition was of especial interest, manifesting the 
material strides toward civilization, which our Indian neighbors are 
making. The exhibit in all departments were said, by the secretary, 
to be more numerous and better in quality than last year. In the 
horse department there were one hundred and nineteen entries, 
including some very fine animals in the heavy-draught, agricultural 
and carriage classes. The entries in this department last year were 
but sevenrv-eight. A corresponding increase was also noticeable in 
the cattle sheds, there being one hundred and seventeen entries in 
this department, all belonging to native farmers. Among the cattle 
were notice.: several well-bred Durhams, and the entire display was 
better then has been made at any previous exhibition held by the 
society. I" ?^:ine and sheep the number of exhibits were small. 
The indu<:: ?J hnll contained the displays in grain, field crops, fine 


arts, ladies' work, farm and dairy produce, fruit, etc. The show of 
fruits, grain and field crops, although not large, was a good one. 
reflecting credit upon the agricultural skill of the Indians. In 
canned and preserved fruit, bread, cakes, etc., the exhibit was large. 
In ladies' work a number of patch-work quilts, as well made as if 
from the needle of the most skilled " pale-faced " seamstress, tidies 
in crochet and Berlin wool, and a general assortment of fancy won: 
were displayed. A natural history collection, consisting of ornitho- 
logical and mineralogical specimens, attracted much attention from 
the visitors. Another interesting exhibit was a collection of wooden 
work made by the natives. The display consisted of lacrosse sticks, 
canes, marvelously carved, when the simplicity of the tools used is 
taken into consideration, papoose boards, ladles, war-clubs, tipped 
and loaded with lead, bows, arrows, quivers, and a variety of other 
articles. A primeval corn-mill, made by burning a hollow in a block 
of wood, and adding an immense pestle of hickory with which the 
grain is crushed, stood in one corner bearing the " red " ticket. Of 
course the show of " line arts " was meagre. A few Berlin wool, 
shell and hair-work wreaths and half-dozen water colors, in all of 
which the aborigines, in full war-paint and bedecked with feathers, 
appeared prominently, comprised the display. 

On the whole, the exhibition was a very good one, and reflected 
much credit upon the Indians of the Reserve, and the president and 
directors of the society. 

One hundred years ago the ancestors of the inhabitants of the 
Reserve received, at the hands of Sir Frederick Haldimand, the 
Royal Charter, granting to them, as a reward for their fidelity to the 
British Crown, during the American Revolution, 'the land which 
their descendants still hold. In commemoration of this event a 
celebration was held yesterday to which the Lieut. -Governor of the 
Province, Senator Plumb and other prominent gentlemen, together 
with a number of Indian chiefs, were invited. At elevated points on 
the show grounds flag-staffs were erected, from which floated the 
British ensign, for the honor of which the Mohawks and confederate 
tribes had sacrificed so much, and a speaker's stand was provided 
for the accommodation of the distinguished visitors. Shortly before 
noon Senator Plumb, Superintendent Gilkison and other gentlemen 
arrived on the grounds. A diminutive cannon, announced the event 
by frequent discharges, which served the dual purpose of demon- 
strating Indian patriotism, and frightening all the horses on the 


-rjund^ Two Indian bands were in attendance and saluted the 
visitors with several musical selections. It had been intended to 
" ;'.i the meeting in the open air, but as the hour approached, it 
began to snow and blow, necessitating an adjournment to the 
Council House. Upon the platform were seated Hon. T. Burr 
Plumb, Wspa. Patterson, M. P., Supt. Gilkison, ex-Mayor Henry, Dr. 
Wm. T. Harris and Chiefs Henry Clinch and Alex. Smith, the first 
named acting as chairman and the latter as interpreter. To the 
right of the stand were seated Chiefs Elias Johnson, of the Lewiston 
Reserve, La Forte, of Onondaga Castle Reserve, near Syracuse, 
N. V., Jacob Hill, of Green Bay, Wis., and Powless. Fraser, Thomas, 
Dextater. Hill, Key, Buck, Porter, Jonathan and Wage, of the Six 
Nations Reserve, and Rev. Bearfoot, of Point Edward. 

Superintendent Gilkison, upon arising, said that the occasion they 
had met to celebrate was one memorable in the history of the Six 
Nations Indians and it was with pleasure that he acted as chairman. 
He stated that owing to unavoidable causes they were deprived of 
the presence of the Lieut. -Governor and the General Superintendent 
of Indian affairs. The speaker then spoke of the fidelity of the Six 
Nations to England's King, in a time of great need, and reviewed 
the granting of the Brant Reserve to them as a slight compensation 
for the losses sustained by them, and the hardships to which they 
were subjected during the struggle. In this connection Mr. Gilkison 
read a copy of the decree, .signed. by Sir Frederick Haldimand, by 
which a tract of land, six miles deep, on both sides of the Grand 
River, extending from its mouth to the source, was ceded to the 
Mohawks and allied tribes. The speaker then alluded to the great 
strides which the Indians had made toward civilization, as shown in 
their churches, schools and in the agricultural exhibition, which 
had just been concluded. In conclusion, Mr. Gilkison read a letter 
from Mr. Wm, C. Bryant, of Buffalo, an adopted chief of the Seneca 
tribe, expressing regret on behalf of himself and other gentlemen who 
had been invited, that they were unable to be present at the celebra- 
tion, and expressing the earnest hope that it would be long before the 
Mohawks would be merged into the pale-faced race. 

Wm. Patterson, M. P., was then introduced. He expressed his 
gratification at being present and witnessing the advancement made 
by the Indians as demonstrated by their exhibition. On such an 
occasion as they had met to celebrate it was meet that references of 
a historic nature should be made, and he was pleased and honored 

9 6 

to see that Senator Plumb, a leading citizen of Canada, one who had 
always studied and manifested an interest in Indian affairs, was 
present to give them some historical facts in regard to the Six 
Nations. The speaker then referred to the great advancement the 
country had made, and said that inhabitants of Brant County, and 
especially the city of Brantford, were under deep obligations to the 
Indians for the lands which had been procured from them. The 
Government had always dealt honorably with the Indians, and the 
speaker expressed a hope that this policy would always be pursued 
in the future. For years the white men and the Indians had dwelt 
in harmony, side by side, without murmurings, much less revolt, on 
the part of the latter, which he hoped would continue in the future. 
Mr. Patterson's remarks were received with much applause. 

Senator Plumb was next introduced. He began his eloquent and 
interesting address by stating that he felt highly honored and pleased 
by the invitation to attend the exhibition, and take part in the cele- 
bration with those whom the Government were bound to protect and 
cherish in every way in their power. He then referred to the forma- 
tion of the league of the " Long House," by which the several tribes 
composing the Six Nations were bound together and became an 
invincible power upon the continent. The immense territories 
acquired by them, and the many nations which they conquered, with 
no other weapons but those formed of shell and stone, were recounted 
by Mr. Plumb in graphic language. In the middle of the seventeenth 
century the Six Nations had reached the summit of their power. 
The Dutch settlers had entered into friendly relations with them, and 
this was continued by the English. With them the Mohawks formed 
a covenant chain, which had never been broken, -but remained 
untarnished still. The Six Nations were the highest type of Indians 
ever known upon the continent, and the speaker hoped that their 
nationality would never be merged into that of the whites. The 
hatchet was buried, and he hoped that they would be as successful in 
peace as they had been in war. It was with great sorrow that they 
had abandoned their beautiful lands in the center of New York, but 
they remained true to the cause of Britain's King and sacrificed all 
to keep their promise as expressed by the covenant chain formed in 
previous years. The gratitude of the King to them for their aid 
shown by the liberal grant of land which had been made to them. 
After having passed through a period of war and semi-civilization, 
they were rapidly reaching a complete civilization, as evinced by their 


schools and agricultural exhibition, which latter would compare 
favorably with many of the local fairs held by their white brethren. 
Education was now the first necessity, and every one should take 
advantage of the school privileges held out to him. A great im- 
provement had been made, but there was still room for more, and 
the speaker hoped that they would continue until they had reached 
a complete civilization. Mr. Plumb closed his remarks by express- 
ing regret that the Governor-General and Lieut. -Governor had not 
been able to be present, and assured his Indian friends that he would 
always retain an interest in their race and their advancement. 

At the conclusion of Senator Plumb's address, remarks were made 
by Chiefs Clinch, Smith, and Jacob Hill, of Green Bay, Wisconsin. 
Messrs. Cleghorn and W. F. Cockshutt and Rev. Mr. Caswell, the 
representative upon the Reserve of the New England Company. 
Several of these gentlemen made excellent remarks, but scarcity of 
space forbids more than a brief mention. The occasion throughout 
was very pleasant, and will long be remembered by the Indians 
and their white brethren who were fortunate enough to have been 




Whoever has read Mr. Morgan's " League of the Iroquois " must 
naturally have been struck with the whimsical names which the 
founders of the confederacy bestowed on the fifty hereditary sachem- 
ships, such as (interpreted into English) " War-club-on-the-ground," 
"At-the-great-river," "Falling-day," " Dragging-his-horns," " Hang- 
ing-up-rattles," "A-man-with-a-headache," ** On-the-watch," "Wear- 
ing-a-hatchet-in-his-belt," etc. The explanation is very simple. 
During my childhood I often heard the tradition concerning this 
matter from the lips of aged Indians who were the repositories of the 
legends and lore, handed down from father to son, for countless 
generations among my tribe. 

After the scheme of a confederacy of the different Iroquois tribes. 
or " nations," had been perfected, by Hiawatha and his partisans, 
and the reluctant assent of the redoubtable Onondaga chief, Toda- 
daho (Atotarho), been obtained, the fifty hereditary sachems who 
were to administer the affairs of the new Indian empire, were selected- 
from the different nations. The number was not equally apportioned 
among the tribes. For instance, to the Onondagas were assigned 
fourteen sachemships, while the Senecas had only eight; but as 
unanimity was a requisite of every decision of this forest senate, it 
mattered little. A wise old chief from the more eastern tribes, — 
possibly Hiawatha himself, — was chosen and instructed to journey 
westward and apprise the several nominees to the great office of 
League-sachem of their selection. Me was also invested with the 
prerogative of inventing and conferring the permanent titles of tl 
sachemships. He wisely resolved that, instead of leaving it to his 
fancy or invention, he would let chance, or what we call Providence, 
suggest and determine the name, and he proceeded on the west* 


trail to fulfill his mission. When he came to the wigwam of a family 
thus to be honored, he gave the elected head of the household a 
sachem name or title, which was to be hereditary and last as long as the 
League should endure, and which was suggested by his appearance, 
his occupation at the moment of encountering him, his condition and 
natural surroundings at the time. For instance, calling at the lodge 
of one of the Mohawk nominees, the messenger surprised the former 
in the act of hanging up on the ceiling of the wigwam the fawn-hoof 
rattle-bracelets which warriors wore on their ankles in the war-dance. 
He was forthwith invested with a title which, translated into English, 
signifies "Hanging up rattles." His successor in office to-day wears 
the same name. Another, upon whom he called, impressed him by 
his lofty, intellectual forehead, and " High Forehead " became his 
title. Another, a Seneca, was surprised in the act of mending his 
moccasins, and exasperated at the accidental breaking of his bone 
needle ; the title of his office became " The Needle Breaker." 

The foregoing explanation is ingenious and probably true. I have 
heard that the titles* of barons and other nobles in the old country 
had their origin in just such trivial circumstances. 1 

Alas ! so much has perished of the unwritten traditions of my 
people, and so much is being enshrouded in the thickening darkness 
of a night which will know no morning. 

1 1, e., Honi soit qui mdl y pense ; Count Von Gellhorn (of the screeching 
horn), etc. 




Oct. 27TH, 1878. — Spent most of the day in the cabin and on the 
grounds of Ruth Stevenson, which latter were the site of one of the 
villages belonging to the extinct Kah-kwahs or Neutrals, and are 
rich in relics of that lost people. Ruth said that her step-father, Red 
Jacket, scarcely ever smiled, although far from being a morose man. 
His forehead was bald ; back from the middle of the crown the hair 
was thick and long, reaching down below his shoulders. This he 
invariably wore in the form of a single braid. It was Ruth's office to 
braid the old man's locks every morning. Formerly they took their 
meals squatted On the floor, and, when the weather was warm, on the 
grass under the trees. They were often surprised at such times by 
white visitors. 

Once when they were dining in this primitive fashion, her mother 
looked up and exclaimed, in Seneca, " See, two carriages are ap- 
proaching, filled with white people ! " At the same time she arose to 
withdraw from their too curious gaze. Red Jacket replied, "Stay, do 
not go. The white people are obliged to eat as well as we. There 
is no cause for shame or fear." The mother, however, insisted on 
retiring. The strangers, among whom were several ladies, alighted 
from the carriage, came up and saluted Red Jacket, who, although 
attired simply in his blouse and moccasins, arose with great dignity, 
bowed, and shook hands with each, and with the grace of a courtier. 

A few days afterward Red Jacket walked to the village of Buffalo, 
and at sundown his wife and the children descried him in the near 
distance bearing on his back a large cherry dining-table, which he 
soon placed before his wife, saying, " Now, mother, we can eat like 
white folks." After this all their meals were spread on this table, 
which Ruth still keeps and which she exhibited to me. 

Red Jacket, she said, was quite fair, — lighter in complexion than 
most Indians. Her mother would sometimes playfully taunt him with 


being half-white, saying he was of too light a hue for a pure Indian. 
This invariably caused him to exhibit a mild irritation. 

Red Jacket would say that he was the last of his family, having 
survived all his children, his brothers and sisters. Nevertheless, 
after his death a considerable number of Indians participated in the 
ten days' funeral feast customary among the Iroquois when a leading 
chief dies, and claimed a share in the distribution of his effects. 

He had no ornaments, save the Washington medal, but the medal 
and his wardrobe were claimed by members of his clan who are 
accounted relatives among the Iroquois. The late chief, Jemmy 
Johnson, was heir to the medal presented to the old chief by Gen. 
Washington ; by him it was transmitted to Gen. Ely S. Parker, the 
present owner of this precious relic. The cross, set with precious 
stones, and which history affirms Red Jacket desired to be buried 
with him, Ruth had never seen, and it is probably apocryphal. 

His forehead was high and expansive ; it retreated but little, if 
at all. B. 


Fifth Day, Oct. 30. — After dinner, John Parish and myself rode 
to view the Farmer's Brother encampment, which contained about 
five hundred Indians. They are located by the side of a brook, in the 
woods ; having built about seventy or eighty huts, by far the most 
commodious and ingeniously made of any that I have seen. The 
principal materials are bark and boughs of trees, so nicely put to- 
gether as to keep the family dry and warm. The women as well as 
the men appeared to be mostly employed. In this camp there are a 
large number of pretty children, who, in all the activity and buoyancy 
of health, were diverting themselves according to their fancy. The 
vast number of deer they have killed since coming here, which they 
cut up and hang round their huts, inside and out, to dry, together 
with the rations of beef which they draw daily, give the appearance 
of* plenty to supply the few wants to which they are subjected.' 

1 Diary of William Savary, Friends' Library, vol. 1, pp. 370-3S2. 
8 On another page of this journal Mr. Savary says they sometimes killed more 
than a hundred deers in a day. 


The ease and cheerfulness of every countenance, and the delight- 
fulness of the afternoon, which these inhabitants of the woods seemed 
to enjoy with a relish far superior to those who are pent up in 
crowded and populous cities, all combined to make this the most 
pleasant visit I have yet made to the Indians, and induced me to 
believe that before they became acquainted with white people, and were 
infected with their vices, they must have been as happy a people as any in 
the world. In returning to our quarters we passed by the Indian 
council, where Red Jacket was displaying his oratory to his brother 
chiefs, on the subject of Colonel Pickering's proposals. 

On another page Mr. Savary says of the orator : 

Red Jacket visited us with his wife and five children, whom he 
had brought to see us. They were exceedingly well clad, in their 
manner, and the best behaved and prettiest Indian children I have 
ever met with. 


Our people, the Delawares, call themselves Lenape, meaning men, 
or the real or true men. We often speak of ourselves as the Wii-pa- 
nachki, or People of the Morning} in allusion to our supposed Eastern 
origin. Our traditions affirm that at the period of the discovery of 
America, our Nation resided on the Island of New York. We call 
that island Man-a-ha-tonh, The place wJiere timber is procured for bows 
and arrows. The word is compounded of N 'man-hum-in, I gat 
and tan-ning, at the place. At the lower end of the island was a 
grove of hickory trees of peculiar strength and toughness. Our 
fathers held this timber in high esteem as material for constructing 
bows, war-clubs, etc. 

When we were driven back by the whites our Nation became 
divided into two bands. One was termed Minsi, The great stone; 
the other was called We-naw-mien, Down the river, they being located 
further down the stream than our settlement. 

1 The Senecas called the Delawares Dyo-hens-gwoh, literally, Frm* m Jktm ct tki 
meaning springs. B. 


We called the Susquehannah, A-theth-qua-nee, The roily river. 
The Monongahela was called Meh-man-nau-wing-geh-lau, Many 

When we lived on the banks of that river, say as late as one hun- 
dred and thirty years ago, a herd of bisons used annually to come 
down to the western bank of the river. We called this animal Ah-pa- 
quah-checoe, Wild cow. The Allegany mountains were called by us 
Al-lick-e-wa-ny, He is leavi?ig us and may never return. Reference is 
made, I suppose, to departing hunters or warriors who were about to 
enter the passes of those rugged mountains. 

There are about one hundred and thirty of our people residing on 
the Grand River Reserve. The residue are scattered over the 

APPEN DIX No. 20, 



(A Mohawk Indian girl, daughter of a distinguished sachern lately deceased, and one of the 
invited guests of the Historical Society.) 

So still the tranquil air, 
One scarcely notes the falling of a leaf, — 
But deeper quiet wraps the dusky Chief 
Whose ashes slumber there. 

Sweet Indian Summer sleeps — 
Trusting a foreign and a paler race 
To give her gifted son an honored place 
Where Death his vigil keeps. 

Before that slumber fell, 
Those ashes in their eloquence had stirred 
The stubborn hearts, whose heirs to-day conferred 
A Christian burial. 

Through war's o'er-clouded skies 
His higher flush of oratory 'woke, 
And factious schemes succumbed whene'er he spoke 
To bid his people rise. 

The keenest flint or stone 
That barbed the warrior's arrow in its flight, 
Could not outreach the limit of his might 
That he attained alone. 

Early he learned to speak, 
With thought so vast, and liberal, and strong, 
He blessed the little good and passed the wrong 
Embodied in the weak. 

So great his mental sight, 
That had his form been growing with his mind. 
The fir had been within his hand a wand 
With superhuman might. 


The world has often seen 
His master mind pulse with the waning day, 
That sends his waning nation to decay 
Where none can intervene. 

And few to-day remain : 
But copper-tinted face, and smoldering fire 
Of wilder life, were left me by my sire 
To be my proudest claim. 

And so ere Indian Summer sweetly sleeps 
She beckons me where old Niagara leaps ; 
Superbly she extends her greeting hand, 
And, smiling, speaks to her adopted land, 
Saying, " O, rising nation of the West, 
That occupy my lands so richly blest; 
O, free, unfettered people that have come 
And made America your rightful home — 
Forgive the wrongs my children did to you, 
And we, the red-skins, will forgive you too. 
To-day has seen your noblest action done — 
The honored re-intombment of my son." 

Chiefswood, Ontario, October 9, 1884. 


{Impromptu, on Buffalo Citys Commemoration of, and Monument to, the 
old Iroquois Orator, Oct. g, 18S4.) 


Upon this scene, this show, 

Yielded to-day by fashion, learning, wealth, 

(Nor in caprice alone— some grains of deepest meaning,) 

Haply, aloft, (who knows?) from distant sky-clouds' blended shapes, 

As some old tree, or rock or cliff, thrill'd with its soul, 

Product of Nature's sun, stars, earth direct — a towering human form, 

In hunting-shirt of film, arm'd with the rifle, a half-ironical smile 

curving its phantom lips, 
Like one of Ossian's ghosts looks down. 
Camden, N. J., Oct. 9, 1S84. 



Within a few miles of Syracuse is situated the former capital of the Six Nations, 
that once powerful confederacy whose arms were the terror of the north. It is well 
known as Onondaga Castle, and the position is beautifully chosen amid the sur- 
rounding hills. 

A remnant of the Onondagas now reside upon the site, clinging with the tenacity 
of the Indian to their home, but they have degenerated from their former condition, 
and nothing remains at present but a melancholy wreck of former greatness. 

Where yonder mount arises from the vale, 
With smooth ascent, though steep, of lofty shade, 
That swells with stately view above the wild, 
Were gathered once, the strong and noble hearts 
Of nations leagued for peace or savage war, 
As to a center, sacred as of old, 
The Forum, whence the eagle mandates flew 
With winged speed o'er all the conquered world. 
Proud rulers of the far extended north, 
Their war-song waked each echoing woody dell, 
With dreadful note of wild, untutored war, 
And on a thousand lakes of silver tide, 
Or deep, majestic streams, their hostile fleets 
Poured silent forth, t' avenge the mutual wrong, 
And wreak a dreadful vengeance on the foe. 
But here their place of rest, and sacred home, 
This mount in air, this sweetly flowing wave, 
Where stern victorious hearts enjoyed the peace 
Won by triumphal arms, and with the tale 
Of noble deeds, inspired the soul of youth 
With love of fame to gain the warrior's bays, 
Or yield the life to guard their country free. 
The light of nature was their guide alone, 
And thence their savage virtues purely sprang, 
The patriot deeds that gild their ancient time. 
They looked upon creation's wondrous scene, 
And from their souls went up the hymn of praise 
To some great hand divine, some spirit blest, 
Whose essence none could tell, but whose dread power 
They viewed in ceaseless change, and signs that told 


Their lowly hearts, of all his might and love. 
To him, the offering for their earthly bliss, 
Or earnest prayer to save from tearful woe, 
Whose eye of light, with justice stern surveyed 
Their works of ill or good. So passed they on, 
Rude sons of nature's hand, and in the war 
With savage foes, or on the hunting-ground, 
Found all their pleasures, and their glorious fame. 
But time's eventful course hath spoiled the home 
Long cherished by the heart, the eagle nest, 
Where danger never came of old, and low 
The chieftain's pride is bowed, and all the hosts 
Of warriors bold, that once were gathered here, 
Long since departed to the spirit land. 
Behold the last sad remnant of their race, 
Now circled 'round the expiring council fires, 
And clinging to their fathers' cherished shrines, 
Unmindful of the tide that soon will bear 
The last memorial of their ancient state, 
To that lone ocean, on whose silent shore 
Forgotten shades, through time, still wander on. 

The Indian fades away, and leaves on earth 
No monument to speak in future days 
Of deeds heroic, or preserve the fame 
Of nations lost amid the flow of time. 
There is a mystery in their decay, 
The falling of strong hearts that oft have braved 
Destruction on the field, who knew no lords 
Below, yet breathe their souls upon the gale, 
And sink in silence to the shades of death. 
Sages and heroes, those whose brows are white 
With silvery locks, the prattling tongue of youth, 
And woman's stifled voice, all gliding down 
Oblivion's vale. They are around us yet, 
With haughty souls e'en in their ruin proud, 
Yet with us hold no converse : their's the wilds 
Where nature blooms unpruned, and there they raise 
Rude altars to the spirit great and good. 
Here once their fathers roamed, and firm the step 

1 68 

Of warrior pride, nor soars the monarch bird 
More free amid his heavenly clouds than moved 
Those sons of earth; here burned their council fires, 
Where stern resolves sate on the lofty brows, 
And bosoms thrilled with savage eloquence. 
The bowers of love were here, and these the seats 
Of mighty ancestors, whose loved remains 
Reposed beneath, and charmed the holy place. 
Those days of greatness all have passed away, 
And to the rude yet sacred homes, the hearths 
Where blazed the social fire, with charms as loved 
As e'er the Lares of old time possessed, 
Came desolation, and the mighty hand 
Upraised, of Force. The struggle of the soul 
Ensued, that trembled with the power of hate, 
And deep and silent grief that had no utterance, 
And the proud spirits bowed unto the earth. 
No arm of strength will save them from their end, 
But sadly moving on, a mournful band, 
They go to join their fathers' wandering shades 
That joyful rove the bright Elysian plains, 
And soon in memory's trace will only live, 
Like nations mighty in some ancient time, 
•Whose names alone are breathed, their lofty deeds 
Erased by centuries of changing time. 

August, 1S3.9. 


(Red Jacket, Buffalo, Oct. p, 1884) 


It is half an age since he passed away, 
The Chief we honored that autumn day. 

The day was bright, but what of the deed ? 
Ah ! that depends on the make of the creed. 

It is well that his bones find rest at last, 
But what of the wrongs of the silent past? 

To judge from the Law brought down from the Mount, 
It will need -much more to square the account. 

He spoke for his people, great and small, 
But our ears were closed to his plaintive call. 

He sued for justice, he sought for right, 
But died, as he lived, without the sight. 

We gave no heed to his living tones, 
But what of that? we buried his bones! 

He plead for his own and we heard him not, 
But see the monument he has got ! 

The story returns from the ages gone: 

He asked for bread and they gave him a stone ! 

Buffalo, Nov. 7, 1884. 


Otetiani— Changes effected by Time in Unwritten Languages— Onas, William 
Penn — Little consequence attached to Personal Names among the Iroquois — 
Such names Clan Property, but liable to be Superseded by Newly Invented 
Ones — Letter from General Parker. 

New York, Feb. 17, 1885. 
Wm. C. Bryant, Esq., Buffalo, N. Y.: 

Dear Sir — Your esteemed letter of the 30th ult. was duly received. 
for which accept my thanks. 

I am extremely gratified that you sent Mr.. Hale's letter for my 
perusal. He certainly makes an exhaustive analysis of the name 
Otetiani, and presents strong evidence of the correctness of his 
conclusions. I agree with him most emphatically that " time inevit- 
ably brings " great changes in languages. The Iroquois is not now- 
spoken as it once was. Many words have become obsolete and new- 
ones have been introduced. Nor is there any doubt that many 
proper names have become disused. Onas, the name of " Penn," is 
no longer used, and I have never found a Seneca in my day who 
could tell me anything about Onas. Yet the fact is beyond question 
that William Penn was called Onas, and that the name signified a 
quill. All Iroquois names are clan names, and those given to and 
which appertain exclusively to children were never regarded as of 
much consequence. Children's names and adults' names were not 
necessarily continuous from generation to generation. Old ones 
were dropped and new ones adopted at any time. Dreams were 
sometimes at the bottom of changes, sometimes they were bestowed 
for friendship's sake, and sometimes it was a personal whim or fancy. 
I will not assert it as a fact, but I will say that I do not believe the 
name Otetiani has ever been borne by any other Iroquois since Red 
Jacket's youth, so little consequence is attached to names by the 
Indians. The only Iroquois names to which a perpetuity is attached 
are those of the fifty sachems or League officers, and these only 


because they are so nominated in the organic law of the League, 
which our fathers taught us were immutable and unchangeable. To 
make myself more clearly understood, but with no intention of egoism, 
I will cite my own case. From my earliest recollection, and up to 
the day I was promoted and installed as one of the fifty sachems, I 
bore the name Hasanoanda. That name was then shed or cast off, 
and as completely forgotten by the Indians as if it had never been, 
and I have never heard that it has ever been deemed worthy to be 
bestowed upon any other young Indian. 

Begging your pardon for delaying my response so long, I remain, 
with respect, 

Your Obedient Servant, 



Clinton, Feb. 23, 1885. 
My Dear Mr. Bryant : 

I am greatly indebted to you for the opportunity of perusing 
General Parker's interesting and admirably written letter. His ap- 
proval of my views on the origin of Red Jacket's original name gives 
me great satisfaction. 

He will be pleased to know that the word onas, though obsolete in 
the Seneca dialect, is still retained in the Mohawk. Cuoq, in his 
Iroquois Lexicon, gives " OxAS } =fea//ier, plumage, pen;' and adds, 
" Hence the compound onasakenrat, lit. white plumage, the Iroquois 
word for swan." * * " * * 

Ever Sincerely Yours, 





Allen, Hon. Lewis F., 3, 22. 

Allen, Hon. Orlando, 3, 22. 

Allen, William K., 7, 52. 

Anthony, Albert, a Delaware Indian 

and delegate, 24, 28, 46, 102, 103. 
Atotarho (Todadaho), 39, 67, 49, 98. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 3, 7 ; Coun- 
cil of Six Nations in hall of, 12, 25, 
27 ; rich in unpublished matter, 28 » 
Senecas' appreciation of, 44 ; publi- 
cations of, 22, note ; expression of 
thanks to by Canadian Iroquois, 61, 
62; officers of, 59,60. 

Braves unknown buried with Red 
Jacket, 85. 

Buck, John, wampum-keeper, 12, 23; 
funeral chant at Red Jacket's grave, 24. 

Barnum, George G., 55, 59. 

Butler, Col. Wm., 33. 

Butler, Col. John, 82. 

Big Tree, a Seneca sachem, 34. 

Big Tree, treaty of, 35. 

Becker, Hon. Philip, 7, 52. . 

Brant, Joseph, 67, SS. 

Breckenridge, Rev. Dr., 36. 

Bryant, W. C, 6, 7, 15; address of, 
40,47, 52, 55. 

Bisons or buffalo visit Western Pennsyl- 
vania 130 years ago, 103. 

Committees in charge of re-interment, 7. 
Ceremonies at Forest Lawn Cemetery, 

Commemorative exercises at Music Hall, 

Clinton, Hon. George W.,9; address 

of, 26, 27. 

Chester, Rev. A. T. , 59. 

Carpenter, Benj., a Cayuga chief, 12. 

Cusick, David, 39. 

Clinck, Oneida chief, 12. 

Converse, Harriet Maxwell, 13, 53. 

Copway, George, Ojibwa, violates Red 
Jacket's grave, 63. 

Chant sung by Indians at Forest Lawn. 

Clement, Stephen M., 24. 

Clinton, Gov. De Witt, 29, 36, 37. 

Cornplanter, 29, 34, 82. 

Conover, Geo. W., 29. 

Courier, Buffalo, article from, 51. 

Commercial Advertiser, article from, 47. 

Chester, Rev. Anson G., poem "Bury- 
ing the Bones," 109. 

Delaware Indians, interview with chiefs 
of, 102, 103 ; call themselves Len-ah- 
pe, men, or Wa-pa-nach-i, /<-..- 
the morning; resided on the Island 
of Manhattan; meaning of the name 
of the island; afterwards divided into 
two bands, the Minsiand Wenawmien. 
102; Senecas call the Delawares D70- 
hens-gua, from whence the morning 
springs; Delaware names of the Sus- 
quehanna and Monongahela rivers and 
their signification; acquainted with the 
bison in Pennsylvania; Indian name 
of this animal; Allickewany (AUegaoy) 
its meaning. 103; dispersed condition 
of the remnant of the nation, 103. 

Delaware chief, Capt. Pipe, deprecates 
the Indians taking up the hatchet in 
white men's wars, 32. 


Destroy Town, 10, 12, 4, 84. 

David, Robert, a Cayuga chief, 12. 

David, Thos., a Cayuga chief, 12. 

Deseronto, a Mohawk chief, leads a por- 
tion of the expatriated Mohawks to 
Bay of Quint6, 88. 

Express Buffalo, extracts from, 5, 51, 56. 

Farmer's Brother, 6, 29. 

Farwell, Henry D., 9, 63. 

Fires, the Thirteen, 36. 

Forest Lawn Cemetery, 6, 3, 8; diagram 

of Indian burial lot, 50; ceremonies 

at, 12, 28, 49. 
French, Thomas B., 7, 59. 
Fobes, Wm. Dana, 7, 24 ; president 

Buffalo Historical Society, 59. 
Fraser, a Mohawk Indian, 12. 
Furniss, F. H., 29, 53. 
Friends, joint committee of, 37. 
Falk, Rev. S., 59. 

Garangula the great Onondaga orator, 
34; his name or title not a corruption of 
Grand Gueule; probable significance 
and etymology of the name, 79, 80; 
a sub or assistant sachem, 73. 

Garanghuna or Garanghula, 80; not 
named from any physical trait, 79, 80; 
" Great Warriors," assistants to hered- 
itary sachems, sat in council and were 
most prominent in debates but had no 
vote; nearly all the most noted Iroquois 
chiefs belonged to this class, 73; this 
office open to any eminent or gifted 

Gazing-at-the-fire, 40. 

Governesses (chief matrons of families), 

Good Peter, 34. 

Gilkison, Lt. Col., 8. 53, 6o, 61, 93, 95. 

Graves, Gen. John C, 7. 52. 

Great Britain, her treatment of, and 
policy toward the Iroquois, i3, 32. 

Grand River Reserve, Ontario, Indians 
celebrate the centennial of their settle- 
ment at, 93. 

Germain, Charles, B. , 7, 59. 

Hale, Horatio, 17,22; (Book of Rites) 
22,33; essay, 71; paper on Garan- 
gula, 79. 

Halftown, Seneca chief, 34. 

Haldiman, Sir Frederick, 94. 

Hall, Hon. N. K., 40. 

Hill, David and John, Seneca chiefs, 12. 

Hill, Moses, chief, 12. 

Hiawatha (Hyenwatha, Seneca dialect), 
18,23, 35.39.93. 

Heckewelder, 31. 

Hotreoute, 34. 

Honnondeuh, 5, 6. 

Hodenosaunee, 51. 

Hotchkiss, Wheeler, surrenders Red 
Jacket's remains to the Indian^,, 63, 64; 
extract from letter of, 11 1. 

Harvey, Leon F., 7, 59. 

Hawley, Hon. Elias S., 7, 59. 

Iroquois, polity of the, 17 ; language 
and oratory of the, 17, 33, 71; 
patriotism and fidelity, 18,41 ; their 
treatment of women, iS, 25, : 
35, 68, 90; desertion of by Great 
Britain at close of revolutionary war, 
31 ; Romans of the stone age, 31 ; 
unity and conquests of, 31 ; command 
our admiration, 32 ; generosity and 
transcendent eloquence, 33 ; comeli- 
ness of, 35 ; State of New York a! 
ways just toward, 37 ; error of the 
French in antagonizing, 41 ; Holland 
Dutch, wiser policy, 41 ; So 
expedition against, l3, 42 ; Washing- 
ton's humanity toward, 42 ; lo> 
the United States since revolution, 
42, 43 ; a pure democracy, 66 ; three 
elder nations styled " brother- ; " 
younger two, " children," 66 ; bounds 
of conquests of, 4S ; decadence of. 15. 
36; first council of the es: 
tribes since revolution, 60 ; sachems 
and chiefs of, oS, 69, 70. 72. 73 . - 
Morgan's League of the Iroqi; 
assistant chiefs or sub-sachern>, how 
appointed — one for each grand 


Iroquois — Continued : 

sachem, 73 ; a new and third class 
established specially for the Seneca 
nation, 71 ; Red Jacket belonged to 
this class, 71, 75 ; origin of titles of 
sachemships, 98, 99 ; highest type of 
Indians on the continent, 96 ; sug- 
gested the idea of confederation to ; 
the United States and Canada, 90 ; | 
before contact with the whites a happy ; 

• people, 102 ; they attach little conse- j 
quence to personal names ; constant | 
changes in such names ; clan prop- 
erty ; only the names or titles of 
sachems unchangeable, 110, ill ; 
Iroquois, Canadian, 8; express j 
thanks to Buffalo Historical Society, j 
60, 61 ; peculiarly conservative, 72, ; 
73 ; Mohawk centennial celebration ; 
of settlement at Tyendanaga. S7 ; at j 
Grand River, 93. 

Jacket, John, grandson of Red Jacket, . 

6, 12, 40. 
Jonathan, Levi, an Onondaga chief, 12. ! 
Jemison, Rev. Z., 12, 15. 
Jemison, Mary, the captive, 4, 12. 
Jemison, Thomas, Cayuga sachem, 12. j 
Jemison, Thomas, grandson of the j 

" White Woman," 63. 
Jones, Charles, son of Horatio Jones, j 

the captive, 45. 
Jones, William (Tho-no-sa-wah), 12, 54. 
Johnson, the Misses Eva and Pauline, 

Mohawks, 14,46, 53 ; Miss Pauline's i 

poem " Re-interment of Red Jacket,' 


King, The Young, 4. 

Lay, C. C, 15. 

Letchworth, Hon. William P.. 3. 57. 

Little Billy, 4, 10, 12, 50 ; notice of, 84 

Lay, Thomas, Seneca chief, 12. 

Logan, the Mingo, 33. 

Long House, 36, 42, 96. 

Love, Thomas C, 38, 40. 

Marshall, Orsamus IL. 3, 7. -7- 
Montour, (Queen Catharine). S3. 

Morgan's League of the Iroqaois, 71 : 

erroneous conclusions of, 74, 75, -(,. 
Mission Cemetery at East Buffalo, 4, 9, 


Mohawks, the, celebrate the centennial 
of their settlement at Pay of Quinte. 
S5, 92 ; after their expatriation made 
temporary settlement at Lachinc, 83 ; 
Chiefs Thayendanegea (Brant) and 
Deseronto leaders of the emigating 
nation, 88 ; Brant leads the greater 
portion to Grand River country ; 
Deseronto settled with fifteen families 
at Bay of Quinte, 83 ; remarkable in- 
crease in population, 88 ; loyalty to 
the British flag, 90, 91 ; religious his- 
tory of, 92 ; celebration of centennial 
on Grand River Reserve, 93 ; pro- 
gress of, 94 ; grant of land to by the 
British crown, 95 ; sorrow on aband- 
oning Mohawk Valley, 96 ; delegates 
attending Red Jacket obsequies, 46. 

Miller, C.W., 55' 

Mt. Pleasant, chief of the Tuscaroras, 
12, 54, 69, 70. 

Mt. Pleasant, Mrs. Caroline, 46, 9S ; 
paper by, on the origin of the sachem- 
ship titles, 9S, 99. 

McDonald, Sir John and Lady, 90, 92. 

Nephew, William, grandson of Black- 
snake, a delegate, 15. 

Names, Indian proper, significance of 
many lost ; significant only in the 
sense in which the same may be 
affirmed of English names ; never be- 
stowed from any physical character- 
istic, 80 ; absurd nomenclature, 69, 
98, 99, 1 10, in ; Otetiani, meaning 
and derivation of, 77 ; Garangula. 70. 
So; Sagoyewatha, etymology of, 71. 

Needle-Breaker, the. 99. 

Newman, Wm. II. H., 7, 59. 

Old White Chief. 4. 

Onas (Win. Penn\ Mohawk name for 

pen or quill t HO, III. 
Oronhyatekha, 90. 

Ongwehonwe, 31, 36. 

Osborne, Thos. A., 3S. 

Osborne, Miss Jessie, descendant of 

Captain Brant, 14, 46, 54. 
Otetiani (Always Ready), 19, 33. 

etymology of the word, 77. 
Onondaga Castle, a poem, 106, 10S. 
Old Mission Cemetery at East Buffalo* ' 

4, q, 10, 85, S6. 

Parker, Gen. Ely S., one of the fifty 
Iroquois sachems, 12 ; address of, at 
Music Hall, 41 ; exhibits medal pre- 
sented by Washington to Red Jacket, 
44, 62, 64 ; letter from, 66 ; a man of 
mark, 3S ; letter of, on personal 
names and titles, among the Iroquois, j 
no; Donehogawa, sachem title of, 

Parker, Nicholas H., 12. 

Penn, William, S4 ; Indian name and j 
meaning of, in. 

Pierce, Maris B., 28, 46. 

Pipe, Captain, the Delaware, 32. 

Powless, Peter, Mohawk sachem, 12. 

Pollard, Captain, 4, 10, 50, 82 ; sketch 
of, 83, 84. j 

Placide, the comedian, causes a marble 1 
slab to be erected at head of Red 
Jacket's grave, 63, S6. 

Proctor, Colonel, visits the Senecas in 
1791, S2. 

Plumb, Hon. J. Burr, 93, 94, 95, 96,97. 

Poems, 104-109. 

Queen Catharine, married a sutler, or 
trader, the father of Captain Pollard, ; 
a Seneca chief, by a previous mar- ! 
riage with an Indian woman ; his | 
sons prominent warriors in the revo- 
lutionary struggle, S3. 

Red Jacket, original place of sepulture, \ 
4; history of project for re-burial, 3, 
4, 5, 7 ; re-interment of, 12 ; bearers | 
of remains, 12 ; funeral procession, 
13; ceremonies at the grave, 13 ; Mr. 
Bryant's address, 15-22 ; Indian j 
chant and ceremonies at new grave, 

Red Jacket — Continued : 

23, 24 ; wampum belt u^ed in funeral 
ceremonies, 23 ; intemperate habits. 
22, 27, 29, 30 ; greatest of Indian 
orators, 27 ; his death and last woro, 
30, 23 ; his marvellous memory. 21. 
68 ; opposed to Christianity, 21, 43 ; 
grave of, desecrated, 22, 43 ; descend- 
ants of, 45; Stone's life of 43 ; V 
ington medal exhibited by Gen. 
Parker, 44, 101 ; ceremonies at re- 
intombment arranged by the Indian-., 
and described, 3, 7, 52, 62 ; effort to 
preserve the nationality and inheri- 
tance of his people, 22 ; death of. 65 : 
disappointed ambition. 66 ; dissimu- 
lation of, 23, 6S ; marble slab erected 
over his grave by the comedian Pla 
cide, 63 ; remains of, 9, 56 : recovery 
of, 63, 64 ; inability to comprehend 
rights of conquest as affecting Indian 
lands, 43; his original name, Ote'.iani. 
l 9> 33. 67, 6S, 69, 71 ; his official 
name and rank, 71 ; the Pericles and 
Demosthenes of his people, 74, 75 ; a 
walking encyclopedia of the affairs 
of the Six Nations, 63 ; ever the 
chosen spokesman of the matrons of 
tribes, 6S ; Sagoyewatha, etymology 
of the word and how pronounced, 71 ; 
Red Jackets official name and rank. 
71 ; description of, S6, 100, 101 ; the 
last of his family : light complexion 
for an Indian, 10 1 ; funeral feast ami 
distribution of his effects among hi> 
clan, lor ; glimpse of his farm'. 
102 ; personal ornaments of; a 
phal cross. 101. 

Sachems of the League, 65. 67 ; ab>urd 

nomenclature, 63, 98, 99. 
Sagoyewatha, see Red Jacket. 
Seymour, ex-Governor, 27, 47. 4" 
Subscribers, list of, 57. 58. 
Sullivan's campaign, iS, 10. 
Stone, Col. Wm. L., 84. 
Stevenson, Moses, a Seneca 
Stevenson, James, husband of R* 
Smith, lion. James M., 59. 

1 1 

Senecas, corruption in blood of, 15 ; 
progress of before the revolution, 16, 
17, 18 ; Judge Clinton's appeal to, 
39 ; tradition as to origin of, 30 ; 
cruelty of Great Britain and France 
toward, 31 ; desire to maintain neu- 
trality at beginning of revolution, iS ; 
Red Jacket's unavailing efforts to 
preserve nationality and inheritance 
of, 22 ; introduce changes in consti- 
• tution of the League, 74, 76. 
Scalps, 33. 

Silver Smith, a Seneca chief, 12. 
Snow, Andrew, 12. 
Snow, John, 4. 
Shelton, Rev. Dr., 40. 
Sheldon, Chief Judge, 7, 14, 24, 59; 
address of, at Music Hall, 25, 26 ; 
Gov. Seymour's letter to, 47, 48, 49 ; 
daughters of decorate burial caskets 
of the dead braves with flowers, 14; 
Miss Grace Sheldon decorates stage 
at Music Hall with palms and flower- 
ing plants, 55. 
Sachems, hereditary, had the right to 
nominate one assistant each ; the lat- 
ter sat in council but had no vote ; 
the most eminent and gifted Iroquois 
chiefs belonged to this secondary 
grade. Red Jacket belonged to a 
third and inferior class of chiefs spe- 
cially created for the Senecas, 73, etc. 
Savary, William, extracts from journal 
of, 101, 102. 

j The White Woman, 4. 
1 Tamenund, 35. 
j Tall Peter, 10, 12, 8 4. 
I Tompkins, Gov., 2;. 
I Tolliver, Humphrey, S5. 
! Todadaho. 39, 98. 
, Thomas, David, present Atotailio. -, , 
j Tracy, Albert H., hi- description of 
Red Jacket, 29, 40. 
Tuscaroras, not admitted to perfect 

equality in the League, 69. 
Twenty Canoes, 4. 
Two Guns, 4, 63, 64, 65. 
Traditions fast perishing. 99. 
Tyendinaga Reserve, Mohawks celebrate 
the centennial of their settlement at. 
I Tilden, Tared IL, 59. 
j Townsend, George \\\, 7, 59. 

I Unknown braves re-interred w ith Red 
Jacket, 50, 81, 85, 86. 

I Wampum belt used at re-burial of Red 
I Jacket, 23. 

Washington, Gen., 29, 34, 54. 

Western Savings Bank depositor) of 
Red Jacket's remains. 7. 

Wright, Rev. Asher, 3, 38, 63. (, 4- ( '5- 

Wright, Mrs. Asher, 3, 4. ')■ 

Women Iroquois. iS, 25. 26, 34. 35- 6 ^ 

Wyoming, massacre of, 62. 83. 

Young King, The, (Gufengwahtoh). 4. 

10, 12 ; sketch of. Si ; wounded in 
1812, Si, 82, 83. 


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